There are many reasons to grow houseplants: they beautify our homes, contribute to our psychological well-being, humidify the air, reduce the frequency and duration of colds and flus, increase the oxygen level indoors, reduce air pollution… and they even remove dust from the air.
We forget that although plants get many of the minerals they need for growth through their roots, they also use their leaves as a source of minerals. They absorb the fine particles that float in the air – dust! –, break them down, using them as building blocks for their growth. Among the products are absorbed this way are many that are toxic to humans – formaldehyde, benzene, trichlorethylene, etc. – but also fungus spores and bacteria, not to mention the dander (dead skin cells) that make up 80% of the dust found in most homes. And this action is not entirely passive, either: plants just don’t wait around for dust to fall on their leaves by accident. They produce negative ions that literally attract particles suspended in the air, much like a vacuum cleaner or a magnet.
The result is that the dust level in a typical house can drop by 40% or more in the presence of plants. Even one or two plants per room can visibly reduce the dust, but the more you grow, the lower the dust level.
That said, plants can’t absorb larger particles found in the air of our homes, notably pet hair. It can eventually accumulate on the leaves of your plants and block their stomata, reducing their filtering abilities. That’s why it’s wise to rinse or wash houseplant leaves from time to time.
Which Plants Can You Use?
Any houseplant will remove dust from the air, but the most effective are those which remain actively growing in winter, such as creeping fig (Ficus pumila), ferns, maranta, umbrella plant, spider plant, peace lilies, African violets and some palm trees, among others.