20180124A Trois pommes www.campbellsorchards.com .jpg
Three Malus pumila cultivars. Source: www.campbellsorchards.com

The novice gardener regularly encounters the word “cultivar” without necessarily understanding its meaning. Yet it’s so simple.

A cultivar is a plant discovered or developed by a human. The word simply means “cultivated variety” (culti + var). It could result from a deliberate cross between two other varieties, as in the case of the apple ‘Emperor’ above, therefore a hybrid, or it could be a mutation found on a plant or a seedling with qualities (bigger flowers, differently shaped leaves, etc.) than the original species. Usually we write the cultivar name in between single quotation marks and in Roman letters. ‘Osiris Fantaisie’, for example, is a cultivar of Ligularia dentata.

Also, to avoid confusion, the rule is that the cultivar name must always be derived from a spoken language such as French, English or Japanese, rather than a dead language like Latin or ancient Greek. The botanical name of the plant, on the contrary, is always written in italics and does derive from ancient Latin or Greek. There are still a few old cultivars with Latin-based cultivar names (‘Rubra’, ‘Variegata’, etc.), but these are exceptions rather than the rule.

A Cultivar Name Is International

Take the name Vitis vinifera ‘Petit Rouge’, a grape vine, as an example. Vitis vinifera, italicized, is the botanical name for all European grapes. ‘Petit Rouge’, between single quotation marks and in Roman letters, is the cultivar name. This name helps distinguish it from the hundreds of other cultivars of European grape.

Note too that you never translate a cultivar name: it’s like a proper name. Frenchman Laurent Roy doesn’t become Larry King when he travels to England and Ludwig König while he’s in Germany: it remains the same wherever he goes, all over the world. So it would be incorrect to change the name of ‘Petit Rouge’ to ‘Little Red’ when you grow it an English-speaking country.

You’d like more examples? Here are a few. The first part, in italics, is the species name and the last part, in single quotes and Roman type, is the cultivar name:

20180124B Acer platanoides 'Crimson King' newfs.s3.amazonaws.com & www.glovernursery.com .jpg
The species Acer platanoides has green leaves. It’s the wild form and needs no cultivar name, while Acer platanoides ‘Crimson King’, with deep purple leaves, is a human-made selection and a cultivar name is required. Source: newfs.s3.amazonaws.com & http://www.glovernursery.com

Acer platanoides ‘Crimson King’
Hosta ‘Sum and Substance’
Rudbeckia fulgida sullivantii ‘Goldsturm’
Solanum lycopersicum ’Sweet 100’.20180124A Trois pommes www.campbellsorchards.com .jpg

 

Larry Hodgson is one of Canada’s best-known garden communicators. He has notably been editor-in-chief of HousePlant Magazine, Fleurs, Plantes et Jardins, À Fleur de Pot and Houseplant Forum magazines and is currently the garden correspondent for Le Soleil and radio garden commentator for CKIA-FM Radio. He has written for many garden publications in both the United States and Canada, including Canadian Gardening, Harrowsmith, Horticulture, Fine Gardening and Organic Gardening. He also speaks frequently to horticultural groups throughout Canada and the U.S. His book credits include The Garden Lover’s Guide to Canada, Complete Guide to Houseplants, Making the Most of Shade, Perennials for Every Purpose, Annuals for Every Purpose, and Houseplants for Dummies, as well as nearly 60 other titles in English and French. He is a past president of the Garden Writers Association (now Garden Communicators International) and the winner of the prestigious 2006 Garden Media Promoter Award offered by the Perennial Plant Association. He resides in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

2 comments on “What is a Cultivar?

  1. Great post! An succinct explanation to a commonly asked question when I speak at gardening events and at our botanical garden & organic perennial nursery. Shared on Facebook and Google+

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