Sowing Seeds Vegetables

Start Hardening Seedlings Off Early

Where I live, this spring has been exceptionally cold and I’m nowhere near acclimatizing any seedlings to outdoor conditions, but I mustn’t forget that many other temperate climate gardeners are enjoying warmer days. If so, and if lugging trays of plants indoors and out is not something that bothers you, it can be advantageous to start hardening off your seedlings, even when nights are still cold.

Days over 55 °F (12 °C) are warm enough for most seedlings you started indoors (annuals, vegetables, perennials, etc.) to begin enjoying outdoor conditions. I’d wait, though, for 65 °F (18 °C) days before putting the tenderest seedlings, like tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, cucumbers, melons, begonias and impatiens, outdoors. It’s highly likely that night temperatures will still be too cold for them to be outdoors, but you might not have to carry them far: you can often simply put them in a garage or shed overnight: temperatures there are bound to be warmer.

This gradual exposure to cool air and sun (called hardening off or acclimatization) will give shorter, denser, tougher plants and may possibly boost productivity later in the season.

Greenhouses are ideal for hardening off seedlings. Open them on warm days, seal them shut on at night if temperatures drop. They remain warm even on cold nights. Photo:

Start by acclimatizing the seedlings in a shaded spot that only a few sunny rays can reach, then, after 2 or 3 days of shade, move them to partial shade. Yet another 2 or 3 days later, they’ll be ready for their first taste of full sun.

If day temperatures begin to dip below 55 °F/12 °C (65 °F/18 °C for tender seedlings), temporarily end your experiment with hardening off and move the young plants back to their indoor location. But even a short period outdoors will have benefited the seedlings. You can start acclimatizing a few days later, when temperatures warm up again.

Obviously, don’t plant your seedlings outdoors permanently until there is no longer anyrisk of frost and the soil has warmed up. That usually follows the first warm days of spring by several weeks. 

Garden writer and blogger, author of 65 gardening books, lecturer and communicator, the Laidback Gardener, Larry Hodgson, passed away in October 2022. Known for his great generosity, his thoroughness and his sense of humor, he reached several generations of amateur and professional gardeners over his 40-year career. Thanks to his son, Mathieu Hodgson, and a team of contributors, will continue its mission of demystifying gardening and making it more accessible to all.

3 comments on “Start Hardening Seedlings Off Early

  1. Yes, those of us in temperate climates don’t have much to move around anyway, because so much gets sown directly. Would you believe that we are expecting rain on Wednesday?! Frost is long gone of course.

    • Here, frost still occurs regularly, but that should end soon. And we get rain (or snow) all year long, often far too much. All our gardens are planned for better drainage! Quite a difference!

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