Cactus and succulents Gardening Houseplants

Madagascar Jewel: The Pass-Along Succulent

Madagascar jewel (Euphorbia leuconeura). Photo:

You’ve never heard of the Madagascar jewel (Euphorbia leuconeura)? I’m not surprised. It’s a fairly obscure houseplant, certainly not one you see often in garden centers. However, it is making the rounds in a parallel system … as a pass-along plant. A neighbor, friend or relative gives you one, then you grow it and produce baby plants that you give to someone else. And it’s been spreading that way for years, as I can recall first seeing it about at a plant exchange about 30 years ago.

How do I know that this plant is so widely grown? People keep sending me photos with the question, “What is this plant?” Or they bring a specimen or cutting to a lecture I’m giving and ask if I know it. It’s instantly recognizable. 

There really isn’t anything jewellike about a mature Madagscar jewel, here one with several branches. Photo: Tommy Kronkvist, Wikimedia Commons

Oddly, I didn’t even know this plant had a common name under I decided to research this article. I’d always known it simply as Euphorbia leuconeura, which would translate as white-nerved euphorbia. The name Madagascar jewel is rather a silly one, actually. Yes, it does come from Madagascar, but I fail to anything jewellike about it. A jewellike plant would be small and kinda cute, don’t you think? But Madagascar jewel is big and rather thuggish.


E. leuconeura is a succulent shrub, even a small tree, reaching to 1.8 m (6 ft) in height. Although commonly mistaken for a cactus, it’s actually a member of the euphorbia family (Euphorbiaceae).

Juvenile plant with white nerves. Photo:

Young plants bear tear-shaped leaves with brilliant white nerves and a reddish petiole. The white coloration fades over time and the nerves become green. The petioles, though, retain their reddish tinge, most visible in strong light. Mature leaves are dark green and leathery, measuring up to 15 cm (6 inches) long and 6.5 cm (2 ½ in) wide. They too sometimes have a reddish tinge, especially if you grow the plant in bright light.

Over time, the stem thickens and becomes angular. Photo: Reda Tomingas, Flickr

On young plants, the stem is tubular and green or reddish, but soon thickens and then develops 4 to 5 distinct angles with brown hairy edges. It remains green with pale brown crescent-shaped marks where old leaves were once attached. The stem grows straight up at first, only branching after several years or if pruned.

The flowers aren’t too impressive: you have to get in close to even notice them. Photo: Baja-Costero,

After a year or so, the plant begins producing abundant clusters of tiny insignificant white flowers without any petals at the axils of the upper leaves. They’re not attractive, but soon produce seed capsules that open explosively, shooting seeds up to 2 m (7 feet) away. The seeds germinate readily and soon baby plants begin popping up in the pots of all the houseplants nearby, even in the garden if the plant is outdoors for the summer. If you don’t want the plant to self-sow, pinch off the seed capsules.

E. leuconeura is apparently endangered in the wild, although hardly so in culture!

Growing Your Own Madagascar Jewel

This is a widely adapted plant, easy to grow indoors. 

It prefers bright light to full sun, but will tolerate shade. Under low light, expect the plant to be floppy and requite staking. 

Young specimens of Euphorbia leuconeura. Photo:

Although this plant is a succulent and tolerant of dry soils, it doesn’t seem to mind regular watering either. In fact, plants grown too dry will lose more of their lower leaves (sometimes even all of their leaves) and will be less attractive than specimens grown in soil that is kept slightly moist. Just follow the golden rule of watering: water deeply, enough to moisten the entire root ball, then allow the soil to dry before watering again.

What Madagascar jewel doesn’t like are cold temperatures, below 10˚C (50˚F). In fact, keep it above 15˚C (60˚F) at all times if at all possible. 

You can grow it in just about any potting mix: either a regular houseplant blend or cactus and succulent mix. You’ll probably need to repot young plants annually into larger and larger pots. Use heavy pots for big specimens, as they become top-heavy.

Fertilize your Madagascar jewel if you want, using the fertilizer of your choice, but do so lightly and during the main growing season only (spring through early fall). It will also get along fine without any fertilizer.

It’s perfectly happy with dry indoor air, so there is no need to increase the atmospheric humidity. It will, however, readily tolerate the higher humidity most other houseplants need.

Seedlings sprout pretty much everywhere. Photo:

As for multiplication, it usually does that on its own, seeding itself about not only in its own pot, but in those of other plants. Baby plants thus produced can then be potted up separately. You can also catch the seeds (try bagging the plant with an organza sack) and sow them, barely covering them with potting mix. They germinate in about a month at warm temperatures (22 to 25˚C/72 to 77˚F). You can also take cuttings if for some strange reason you need even more plants.

When pruning, wear googles and protective gloves, as the milky white sap is irritating and toxic. If you get any on your skin, simply wash it off. Keep this plant out of reach of children and pets. 

If your plant is so tall it needs staking, it’s probably best to start a new one. Photo: MiniHamster5,

Honestly, the best way of growing this plant, which gets big and ungainly over time, is to get rid of mature specimens when they take up too much space and simply replace them with one of the abundant young ones that appear everywhere.

I would not recommend growing this plant outdoors in a tropical climate (it is only hardy to USDA zones 10 and above and prefers arid to semi-arid conditions). It’s far too invasive!

Where to Find Plants 

A lot of nurseries won’t grow Madagascar Jewel, considering it too weedy, but you can find plants and seeds online not only from specialist succulent nurseries, but also from such providers as eBay and Etsy.

And, of course, you can easily find specimens at plant exchanges, in flea markets or through your local garden club. Just show a photo at any plant meeting (no use comes from asking for this plant by either its common name or botanical one: few owners know  either!) and hands will rise. Yes, for an obscure plant, Madagascar jewel is actually amazingly common.

Larry Hodgson is one of Canada’s best-known garden communicators. He has notably been editor-in-chief of HousePlant Magazine, Fleurs, Plantes et Jardins, À Fleur de Pot and Houseplant Forum magazines and is currently the garden correspondent for Le Soleil and radio garden commentator for CKIA-FM Radio. He has written for many garden publications in both the United States and Canada, including Canadian Gardening, Harrowsmith, Horticulture, Fine Gardening and Organic Gardening. He also speaks frequently to horticultural groups throughout Canada and the U.S. His book credits include The Garden Lover’s Guide to Canada, Complete Guide to Houseplants, Making the Most of Shade, Perennials for Every Purpose, Annuals for Every Purpose, and Houseplants for Dummies, as well as nearly 60 other titles in English and French. He is a past president of the Garden Writers Association (now Garden Communicators International) and the winner of the prestigious 2006 Garden Media Promoter Award offered by the Perennial Plant Association. He resides in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

26 comments on “Madagascar Jewel: The Pass-Along Succulent

  1. The baby plants are pretty cute (like all babies). It was very kind of you to call the adult plant ungainly. I would have been much more brutal!

  2. Invasive?! Oh my! I was unable to grow it from cutting like other euphorbs. I would have been pleased to find a few seedlings though. I wanted copies because the original plant needed to be removed from an apartment building in Los Angeles. Since I could not propagate it, I canned the original. When my colleague there finally got a few cuttings to survive, the canned original was pruned back in one last attempt to renovate it, but as you say, the cuttings grew into new plants that perform better than the original recovered.

  3. I’ve had one of these cute babies for two years, it was growing big and strong, with 20+ healthy leaves and new growth coming in. Sadly, suddenly it lost all of its leaves except 2 while I was on vacation. I had watered it regularly/thoroughly before I left, but I do live in Portland where smoke made horrible air quality and blocked the sun’s strong rays for almost two weeks. Do you know what could’ve killed it? Is it possible it could bounce back? You seem very knowledgeable, I appreciate your help 🙂

    • I don’t think two weeks of smoky air and reduced light would cause more than a bit of leave loss. It lacked water and went into dormancy, that’s all, a state perfectly normal for a succulent. Just water modestly (not too much: it will need to grow new roots before it will be able to use a lot of moisture) and it should slowly recover.

      • Thank you for your help!! I will definitely water it modestly and try to nurture it back to where it was 🙏

    • I work at a public library in Southern Oregon; during wildfire season we had a broken window in our upper level that let in a lot of smoke, and our Madagascar Jewel lost all it’s leaves too despite regular watering. They all grew back as soon as the air quality improved and has been fine ever since. I’d always assumed it was all about the awful smoke last summer.

    • Mine came back after the smoke from the fires caused the leaves to fall off! Just keep watering as you normally would and the leaves will come back! Mine is full and lush again. I don’t think anything can kill these things!

  4. Maria Nevacshonoff

    I have two jewel plants about 2 years old! They have been spewing seeds out like crazy! I can hardly wait till they all sprout! I’d hear them fall, sweep them up or pick off window sill and plNt them! Should have close to 20 seedling coming in a month! I think they are the neatest plant!

  5. I have a 2 foot jewel and just discovered a whitefly infestation on most of the upper leaves. In a rash decision, I put the plant outside in the Wisconsin cold for an hour to quickly kill the flies. The flies are certainly dead but most of the leaves have gone limp. Did I kill the plant as well or do you think it will perk back up?

    • You’ll have to wait and see. It may take months to react (no kidding!), but it its alive, new leaves will eventually. Keep it distinctly on the dry side for now.

    • I got my jewel, which is also about 2 feet and it had greenhouse cockroaches in it. I got rid of the cockroaches but I thought they had killed the plant because all my leaves went limp. I continued care as I normally would and it seems to be perking up and has about 3 new leaves! Hopefully yours perks up!

  6. Karla Andrich

    Thank you for this detailed writeup. I got given a mostly dormant juvenile about a year back and it’s taken until now for it to get past four leaves at a time. Funny that you called it a “pass along” since this one had two owners before me. 😉

  7. This is so far the best description I have found, thank you so much! I have read it is possible to help it make more branches so it can grow into a more ornamental plant, but so far I have not find any explanation on how to do this. Do you have any ideas ? 🙂

  8. Kerry L O'Gorman

    I have had one for over 10 years. It’s about 4 feet tall and very bushy. It has about 5 branches coming off of it. I thought I would try to propagate one so basically broke it off of the mother plant and let the cutting heel over for 3 days then put some rooting hormone on it and planted it in potting soil. It did very well and so I gave it to a friend. I have also transplanted the babies from the seeds it shoots everywhere. They need to be very well established before transplanting though. Also a note: THE SEEDS ARE POISONOUS SO KEEP AND EYE ON THEM AND YOUR PETS!!

  9. Hi guys,

    I loved the information, but still looking for some tips to make my jewel look more full.

    Mine is doing really well, looks healthy with a full canopy of green leaves. However it keeps growing from a single stem; the main stem that grows straight up.

    I’d like the main stem to grow some branches to fill out my jewel, if you know what I mean. I’ve seen examples of jewels that grew multiple branches that grow leaves of their own.

    Anyone has some experience to stimulate this growth? Is pruning it an option? Or do I just have to be patient?

    Any advice is appreciated!

    • You’d have to prune. I’m not saying that plants don’t occasionally branch in their youth, but the vast majority will produce only one stem until they reach a considerable height. In nature, it’s mature specimens (trees) that produce branches. Pruning, though, will force even a young plant to produce a new “leader” and most of the time, a branch or two as well.

  10. Sylvia Klassen

    Hi there, thanks for the great info. I have had this plant for years. Yesterday I noticed all the leaves turnning yellow (but new green shoots at the top of the plant). Today it is dropping all the leaves. Is this normal? What do you think is happening?

    • It probably dried out a bit too much. This may push it into dormancy, causing leaf loss, but it will soon recover and produce new leaves.

  11. Hello! Thank You for this text. I enjoyed reading it.

    I have a question. How many years can it take for a euphorbia leuconeura to reach 1.8 meters as an indoor plant? Is it possible?
    I was gifted the plant 15 years ago. It was already pruned and i have pruned it back again because the branches got so heavy that they were about to break. I have recently started to sow the seeds. Fun plant but seem too me very slow growing?

    Thank You

    • If you give it a bigger and bigger pot as it grows and water it regularly, though never to excess, in full sun, it can reach that height in 2 to 3 years.

  12. I have multitudinous Madagascar Jewels, also called The Spitting Dragon. Two of my babies grew to be tall and gangly. I was moving and knew they might not Mae it. In a rush I sawed the long neck in the middle and hoped for the best. After re locating I took the top halves and stuck them pots of soil. It took awhile but eventually they started growing again. So too did the bottom halves sprouting leafy arms. Multiple babies have been potted as starters and donated to fund raisers. Very popular plant and easy to grow. Mostly lots of indirect light and regular watering.

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