Only January, Yet Already Time to Sow Seeds?



20180103 ENG, &

It’s only January! Surely it’s too soon to sow seeds? Source:, & mzayat. com

The new year has barely begun, yet now and over the coming month it’s already time to start certain seeds indoors.

This is a very select group of especially slow-to-mature plants. January is far too early for most seeds (think March or April instead), but you need about four to five months of indoor culture to bring the following plants to the right state of growth for outdoor planting.

  1. Agastache (Agastache foeniculum)
  2. Datura (Datura metel)
  3. Fairy Snapdragon (Chaenorrhinum origanifolium, syn. glaerosum)
  4. Lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflora)
  5. Spike dracaena or cabbage palm (Cordyline australis, syn. indivisa)
  6. Tritome (Kniphofia )
  7. Tuberous Begonia (Begonia × tuberhybrida)

No Easy Feat!


Artificial light is almost essential for seeds started in January. Source: laidbackgardener. blog

Starting seed in January in the Northern Hemisphere is not simple. The days are short, the sun is weak and, in many areas, the weather is gray more often than sunny, meaning light is seriously lacking. Also, temperatures in front of the average windowsill are cool, yet almost all seeds need warmth—and fairly even temperatures—to germinate well. As a result, you pretty much have to start these under artificial lights, such as fluorescent or LED plant lights, and in the warmest part of your home.


Germinate the seedlings under glass, possibly over a heating pad, as above. Source:

Always start winter-sown seeds “under glass” (under some sort of transparent covering) to maintain high humidity and stable temperatures and in a room that is at least moderately warm (72 to 75˚ F/21 to 24˚ C) or place the seed containers on a heating pad (one specifically designed for plants). Use a timer to set the day length of your lamp at 14 hours to simulate the long days of summer and place the containers of freshly sown seeds about 6 to 12 inches (15 to 30 cm) below the lamp. Now, wait patiently for germination to occur. (One reason that certain seeds need early sowing is that they are slow to germinate.)

Seeds That Require a Cold Treatment


Many tree, shrub and perennial seeds need a cold treatment before they will germinate. Source: laidbackgardener. blog

January (or December or February) is also a good time to start seeds that need a cold treatment (cold stratification) to germinate well. This group includes most trees and shrubs from cold and temperate climates, but also many perennials and even a few annuals.

These seeds will not germinate until they have received a given number of days of cool, moist conditions, from as little as one or two weeks to four months or more, information you would (hopefully) find on the seed pack.

The number of weeks given is the minimum requirement for that species, but there is no maximum. So, if you keep seeds that need, say, a two-week treatment in the cold for two months, that’s not a problem. That’s nice to know, because the information on the minimum cold treatment for seed X is not always available, especially for seed you harvested yourself. If you don’t know, I suggest giving seeds of perennials a six to eight-week cold treatment: that’s usually enough. For trees and shrubs, I’d recommend three months.

Simply sow these seeds in a container as you would any other, then seal them inside a clear plastic bag and pop them into the refrigerator or cold room for at least the minimum number of weeks. Afterwards, move them to a warm, well-lit spot, on a windowsill or under lights, for germination to start.

100 Seeds That Need a Cold Treatment

Here are 100 plants that germinate best with a cold treatment (there are thousands of others!). Check the seed envelope or the seed supplier’s web site for more information.

  1. Abies (fir)
  2. Acer (maple, mosts species)
  3. Aconitum (aconite)
  4. Alchemilla (lady’s mantle)
  5. Allium (ornemental onion)
  6. Amelanchier (serviceberry)
  7. Aquilegia (columbine)
  8. Asclepias (milkweed, some species)
  9. Astrantia (masterwort)
  10. Baptisia (false indigo)
  11. Buddleia (butterfly bush)
  12. Caltha (marsh marigold)
  13. Caryopteris (bluebeard)
  14. Cercis canadensis (redbud)
  15. Chelone (turtlehead)
  16. Cimicifuga (bugbane)
  17. Clematis (clematis)
  18. Cornus (dogwood)
  19. Corydalis (fumitory)
  20. Delphinium (delphinium)
  21. Dicentra spectabilis, now Lamprocapnos spectabilis (bleeding heart)
  22. Dictamnus (gas plant)
  23. Dodecatheon (shooting star)
  24. Echinacea (purple coneflower)
  25. Eremurus (foxtail lily)
  26. Eryngium (sea holly)
  27. Eupatorium (Joe Pye weed)
  28. Filipendula (meadowsweet)
  29. Forsythia (forsythia)
  30. Fragaria (strawberry)
  31. Fuchsia (fuchsia)
  32. Gentiana (gentian)
  33. Geranium (perennial geranium, cranesbill)
  34. Goniolimon (German statice)
  35. Helianthemum (rock rose)
  36. Helianthus (perennial sunflower)
  37. Heliopsis (false sunflower)
  38. Helleborus (Christmas rose)
  39. Hemerocallis (daylily)
  40. Heuchera (coral bells)
  41. Hibiscus moscheutos (perennial hibiscus)
  42. Hypericum (St. John’s wort)
  43. Iberis (perennial candytuft)
  44. Ilex* (holly)
  45. Incarvillea (hardy gloxinia)
  46. Iris (iris, many species)
  47. Kirengeshoma (waxbells)
  48. Knautia (knautia)
  49. Lathyrus (perennial sweet pea)
  50. Lavandula (lavender)
  51. Leontopodium (edelweiss)
  52. Lobelia (hardy lobelia)
  53. Lonicera (honeysuckle)
  54. Macleaya (plume poppy)
  55. Magnolia* (magnolia)
  56. Malus (apple, crabapple)
  57. Mazus (creeping mazus)
  58. Mertensia (Virginia bluebells)
  59. Muscari (grape hyacinth)
  60. Myrrhis odorata (sweet cicely)
  61. Nepeta (catmint)
  62. Oenothera (evening Primrose)
  63. Opuntia* (beavertail cactus)
  64. Paeonia* (pivoine)
  65. Penstemon (beard-tongue)
  66. Persicaria (fleeceflower)
  67. Persicaria orientalis, syn. Polygonum orientale (kiss-me-over-the-garden-gate)
  68. Phlox (phlox)
  69. Physalis (Chinese lantern)
  70. Picea (spruce)
  71. Platycodon (balloon flower)
  72. Primula (primrose)
  73. Pulsatilla (pasque flower)
  74. Quercus (red and black oaks)
  75. Ranunculus (buttercup)
  76. Ratibida (prairie coneflower)
  77. Rosa (rose)
  78. Rudbeckia (black-eyed Susan)
  79. Sambucus (elderberry)
  80. Sanguinaria (bloodroot)
  81. Sanguisorba (burnet)
  82. Saponaria (soapwort)
  83. Saxifraga (saxifrage)
  84. Scabiosa (pincushion flower)
  85. Sedum (stonecrop)
  86. Sempervivum (houseleek)
  87. Sidalcea (prairie mallow)
  88. Staphylea* (bladdernut)
  89. Stokesia (Stokes’ aster)
  90. Syringa (lilac)
  91. Thalictrum (meadow-rue)
  92. Tiarella (foamflower)
  93. Tricyrtis (toad-lily)
  94. Trillium* (trillium)
  95. Trollius (globeflower)
  96. Tsuga (hemlock)
  97. Vernonia (ironweed)
  98. Veronica (speedwell)
  99. Viola (violets)
  100. Vitis (grape, some species)
*Some species in this genus require a double cold stratification: that is, two cold treatments separated by warm one, to germinate well. Try two to three months of cold followed by two months of warmth, then again two to three months of cold. When you expose them to warmth after these repeated treatments, most will germinate quite readily.

Good growing!20180103 ENG, &

Have a Holly Christmas!


Common holly (Ilex aquifolium)

Common holly (llex aquifolium) has a long history of use as a Christmas symbol.

You most often see it on Christmas cards, with its shiny, spiny dark green foliage and bright red berries. Garden centers also carry potted hollies as gift plants, decorated with artificial wax fruits, plus sprigs of freshly-harvested berried holly at outrageous prices you can place on a table during an Xmas feast, attach to a ceiling or wall or weave into a garland or a Christmas wreath. (Plastic holly is even more widely available and much cheaper!)


In the right climate, holly can become quite a tall tree.

I’m somewhat jealous of people who can just go out into their garden and harvest their own holly sprigs. Where I live, even the hardiest evergreen hollies, like those of the China and Blue series (I. x meservae), are low-growing shrubs totally hidden by the snow at this season. Any branches that aren’t buried in white by now would have been killed back by the cold weeks ago (such is life in zone 3!).

But where does this tradition of holly as a Christmas plant come from?

Before the Christian Era

The tradition of decorating with holly towards the winter solstice is common to many peoples of central and northern Europe, notably the Celts. They saw in this tree, whose leaves remain green all winter and whose red fruits recall drops of blood, as a mysterious and powerful plant, one endowed with great healing potential. After all, its berries are poisonous and what is poison if not a hidden power? (Think like a druid before answering that one!) They even believed that holly trees repelled lightning!


The Holly King and the Oak King locked in battle.

One Celtic legend tells of two opposing twin brothers, the Holly King and the Oak King. The Holly King was seen as a giant bearing a crown of holly and carrying a club made of holly wood. He gradually assumed power every fall, bringing winter to the world, then at the winter solstice, the two brothers would fight and the Oak King would inevitably kill his brother and take over ruling the world, thus bringing back summer. Their roles were then be reversed at each summer solstice, thus bringing about the seasons as we know them.


The Holly King, with his holly crown.

It was common for Celts to wear crowns of holly at the festivities of both solstices, although I would think they’d be rather itchy.

Today some authorities believe that the Holly King was a precursor of Santa Claus.

To profit from the power of holly, Celts would hang holly sprigs in their windows and over the door to keep witches and evil spirits away. Since it was well known that only good people could enter a house protected by holly, holly gradually became a symbol of hospitality and welcome.

Holly Under Christianity

With the arrival of Christianity, holly, with its pagan origins, was quickly banished from the new Church’s rites and rituals. Even so, it managed it work its way gradually back into Christmas legends over the time as the old pagan ways were forgotten.


The Holy Family fleeing to Egypt.

One legend, for example, is based on the Massacre of the Innocents in the Gospel of Matthew, when King Herod, having been told the King of the Jews had been born in Bethlehem, set out to eliminate a possible usurper by killing all male children in the vicinity. To protect baby Jesus, Joseph and Mary fled with him to Egypt. And this is where the holly legend steps in. It’s said the young family saw Roman soldiers coming towards them, hid behind a holly tree and then the tree miraculously bent down its branches to hide them. In thanks, Mary blessed the holly tree and ever since holly has remained green all year.

That’s not the best-known holly legend, though. The most common one concerns the crown of thorns. It claims that, before the arrival of Jesus, holly berries were always white. But then holly was used to make the crown of thorns put on Jesus’ head at the crucifixion and his blood colored the berries red, a color they keep to this day. That is why, this legend says, Christmas is celebrated by decorating the house with branches of holly.

Nice, but no dice… twice. Both legends lose all credibility when you realize there was no holly growing in Israel or indeed anywhere in the Middle East during the time of Jesus: it hails from the cooler, moister climate of central and western Europe.

Holly Today

There is an urban legend going around that claims holly got its name because it was a holy plant. Holly. Holy. That does seem to make sense… but tain’t true. The origin of the word holly is complicated, but essentially it derives from an Indo-European word meaning thorny plant, whereas holy is of germanic origin… and has pretty much always meant holy or healthy.


California holly (Heteromeles arbutifolia)

What is true is that the holly in Hollywood, the legendary abode of movie stars, does come from holly… more or less. You see, the hills above Los Angeles used be covered in California holly (Heteromeles arbutifolia), also known as Christmas berry, a tall shrub or small tree so called because of its berries that are bright red, giving the forest (wood) a reddish haze, hence holly wood. California holly isn’t actually a close relative of true holly (Ilex) though and certainly doesn’t share its spiny leaves.


A sprig of holly adds to the Yuletide atmosphere.

The tradition of decorating the house at Christmas with holly sprigs remains very popular to this day, especially where holly can be harvested locally and inexpensively. There are farms that produce holly as a commercial crop throughout Europe and here and there in the United States.

In several European countries, bringing holly indoors for the Christmas is still believed to ensure a year of good luck. That is, if you don’t bring it in too early. In certain regions of France, for example, it is believed that misfortunate will strike if you bring holly indoors any earlier than December 24th.

May your Christmas halls be decked in holly… but not before the 24th!