ZZ Plant: January Houseplant of the Month


The powerhouse zz plant is the Houseplant of the Month for January 2020. It’s trendy, stylish and incredibly easy to care for. Plus, with its great tolerance of low light, it’s a perfect choice for carrying your decor through the dark days of January!

The Story of the ZZ Plant 

Zamioculcas zamiifolia, probably better known as the zz plant or zeezee plant, is a member of the Araceae, the arum family. It’s a perennial with pinnate leaves that grows to a height of 15 to 24 inches (40 to 60 cm). The leaves on the thick petiole are smooth, shiny and dark green. The plant does flower occasionally, especially when it is stressed, but the arum-like blooms that grow from the base of the plant are not very showy. 

The plant has only been grown as a houseplant since 1996, so has no particular symbolism. In terms of its indestructibility, though, words like ‘strength’, ‘survivor’ and ‘resilient’ are very appropriate.

Origin of the ZZ Plant

The zz plant’s natural environment consists of rocky soil in the lowlands or the base of the highlands of East Africa. It’s found in countries like Kenya, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Malawi and Zanzibar. If it’s grown as a houseplant today, that’s thanks to ambitious Dutch growers, who discovered the plant in the mid nineties and thought this unusual exotic might make a good indoor plant. 

They were right! It’s definitely not hard to grow, but it certainly takes its time in doing so! The plant grows at a snail-like pace. To produce zz plants for the houseplant market, growers have developed special techniques so as to be able to deliver well-developed plants within a reasonable timescale. A warm and humid greenhouse environment in very bright light certainly helps!


The range of zz plant varieties is limited, although the species itself is offered in a wide choice of sizes, so you can buy a large one or small one, depending on your budget.

Young plant of ‘Raven’ (left), mature specimen of the regular zamioculcas (right).

There are only two cultivars: a mini zz plant called ‘Zamicro’ and ‘Raven’, a standard-size variety with very dark leaves, almost black. Even these two cultivars can be hard to find.

What to Look for When Buying a zz plant

When buying a zz plant, the most important thing is to be sure that the plant is free of pests and diseases, although, fortunately, the zz plant is not very prone to either.

  • The number of leaves determines the plant’s price range. A leaf is counted if it is at least half the length of the tallest leaf on the plant. Plants with more leaves will appear fuller … and will cost more.
  • If the plant has a yellow leaf or two, that could mean it may have been stored with no light in a warehouse for too long or has been kept too wet. It won’t make the best choice.
  • Black spots on the stem are normal for this plant and are not a sign of a problem.
  • Also check the pot size in relation to the plant’s rootball, the number of leaves and their length. On some plants, the pot will be somewhat warped due to the enormous pressure the underground tubers put on it. This can sometimes even cause the pots to split open. In that case, do repot without delay. 

Care Tips 

The zz plant is an ‘easy care’ plant that is very tolerant of average household conditions.

  • Put it almost anywhere you want: it will thrive in both bright light and partial shade. It will live, although not thrive, even in shade.
  • A room temperature of 65–72°F (18–22°C) is fine. Don’t keep it too cold, although it generally won’t react badly to cooler temperatures in winter.
  • What the zz plant really cannot cope with is overwatering. Always allow the potting mix to dry out at least a bit before you water again. The plant is a succulent and stores plenty of water in its tubers and its thick leaves, enough to get it through periods of drought. You can easily leave it without water for over a month if you’re away on vacation.
  • Some people fertilize lightly once a month from spring through summer, others not at all, and it seems to do equally well in both situations.
  • Do not spray the leaves “to increase ambient humidity”: it isn’t needed (the plant is very tolerant of dry air) and can leave annoying stains.
  • Remove damaged and yellowing leaves as required. New ones will form if there is sufficient light.
  • As mentioned, the underground tubers are incredibly strong and can, over time, cause the pot to warp or even crack. It’s best to repot a zz plant every 2 to 3 years, before it gets to that stage.
  • In the summer, when the temperature no longer dips below 55 °F (12° C), you can place your plant in the garden or on the patio. Do make sure you acclimatize it gradually, exposing it to brighter and brighter light over a week or so, before putting in full sun.
  • The plant is only for decoration and not for consumption. It is possibly somewhat toxic, although this has not yet been confirmed, so keep it out of reach of children and pets.

Display Tips

The strong vertical lines of the upward reaching pinnate leaves make the zz plant an ideal eye-catching plant to bring greenery into an interior. The fact that it is a very easy houseplant makes it appealing for students and busy people and for offices and public spaces. The plant works in both modern and traditional interiors, depending on the cache-pot. For a trendier look, try your ‘zamio’ in a colorful handcrafted container.

For more information on the zz plant, read The ZZ Plant: The Aberran Aroid.

Text and photos adapted from a press release by Thejoyofplants.co.uk.
Styling by Elize Eveleens, Klimprodukties

The ZZ Plant: The Aberrant Aroid


The ZZ plant may be a fairly new introduction, but it’s already seen as a “classic houseplant.” Source: fleurenville.com

The ZZ or zeezee plant (Zamioculcas zamiifolia), also called aroid palm, has been around long enough to have become a staple houseplant for indoor decors, but that wasn’t always the case. Although discovered back in the early 19th century (it was first described botanically in 1829) in eastern Africa, its potential as a houseplant went unknown for over 150 years. Dutch horticulturists, seeing it used as an ornamental plant outdoors in tropical Asia, tried it indoors and the rest is history. By 1996, it was being mass produced. By 2000, it was essentially available all over the world.

What Is It?

The ZZ plant is an aberrant aroid.

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Most aroids look nothing like the ZeeZee plant. Source: www.fairchildgarden.org

The aroid or philodendron family is best known to most gardeners for its climbing foliage plants, including not only the ever-popular heartleaf philodendron (Philodendron hederaceum, formerly P. scandensP. cordatum and P. oxycardium), but such other indoor climbers as the pothos or devil’s ivy (Epipremnum aureum), the Swiss cheese plant (Monstera deliciosa) and the syngonium or arrowhead vine (Syngonium podophyllum). Of course, the vast family does contain a lot of other plants, including such tuberous tropicals as caladiums (Caladium hortulanum), taro (Colocasia esculentum) and any other plant commonly called an elephant’s ear, a few classic table-top houseplants peace lily (Spathiphyllum spp.) and Chinese evergreen (Aglaonema spp.) and even a few very hardy perennials for the outdoor garden, like the Jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum), native to cool to cold climates in North America.

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Zamioculcas zamiifolia on the left; Zamia furfuracea, on the right. They certainly do look a lot alike, although they are not related. Source: www.plantsrescue.com & http://www.gumtree.com

However, the ZZ plant looks like no other aroid. With its clump of pinnate leaves arching outwards, you’d be more likely to mistake it for a palm or a cycad, possibly even a fern. That’s reflected in its botanical name: Zamioculcas zamiifolia. It’s named after the genus Zamia, short palmlike cycads from the New World which it certainly does resemble.

It is so aberrant that it has no truly close relatives: it is, in fact, monotypic, the only plant in the genus Zamioculcas. It even has its own subfamily that it shares with no other aroid, the Zamioculcadoideae.

A Closer Look

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Underground and out of sight are potato-shaped tuberous rhizomes. Source: Mokkie, Wikimedia Commons

Underneath the cycad-like exterior is a tuberous plant, growing from a fat, potato-like rhizome hidden or mostly hidden under the soil. Extremely thick, succulent petioles arise from the rhizome bearing about 6 to 8 pairs of very shiny, dark green leaflets. Such pinnate leaves are typical of palms, cycads and ferns, but not other aroids.

The plant usually reaches about 2 to 3 feet (60 to 90 cm) in height and spread.

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The flower of the ZZ plant is typical for an aroid. Source:  Mokkie, Wikimedia Commons

Small, typically aroid inflorescences, with a greenish to bronze spathe (leaf-like bract) from which emerges a cream to brown colored spadix (flower spike), appear on very short stems at the base of the plant, often so well hidden you don’t even notice them. Certainly, they contribute little to the plant’s appearance.

One Tough Cookie

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You can put a ZZ plant almost anywhere indoors, even a dark corner, and it will survive for many, many months. Source: Eveline Mallmann, pinterest.ca

The ZZ plant is extremely tolerant of indoor conditions (it also makes an easy-to-grow shade plant for the tropics, but that’s another story). It will grow just about anywhere, from full sun to deep shade, and seems to thrive in neglect. Even so, you’ll get better results if you “treat it kindly,” and that would include giving it good light with some direct sun each day and avoiding spots in full sun during the hotter months of the year.

Of course, while it will “hold” for months in a dark corner that receives no sunlight at all, that will eventually kill it: it’s a living plant after all and all green plants need at least some light!

Rumor has it that the ZZ plant never needs to be watered. That’s nonsense, of course: all living plants need water!

This plant is essentially a succulent (again, aberrant in aroids), native to forests and savannahs where severe drought can occur. As a result, it prefers fairly arid conditions to the humid jungle-like environment most other aroids favor. That helps make it easy to grow, as it will tolerate considerable neglect. Even so, it does best when watered regularly, as soon as the soil is dry to the touch. And when you do water, do so thoroughly, completely humidifying the root ball.

Overwatering can lead to rot, so be sure the growing mix is almost dry before watering again. Sink your index in the substrate to the second joint: if it’s still moist, it’s not yet time to water!

It will tolerate so much neglect you can actually not water it at all for months on end. That will eventually push it into dormancy, though, a state from which it will (slowly) recover when you start watering again. I had a friend whose ZZ plant accidentally got stored in a box for over 2 years: therefore, with no light or water. It was leafless by then, of course, but when water was applied again, it started to regrow, albeit several months later.

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The ZZ plant will grow in almost any decor… but it doesn’t like cold temperatures. Source: www.bakker.com

This plant’s well-deserved “tough-as-nails” reputation only applies if you keep it fairly warm. It is perfectly happy at normal indoor temperatures, that is, between 65° and 80 °F (18 °C and 26 °C), but does not like cool temperatures and can die if exposed to temperatures below 60 °F (15 °C) for any extended period. If you put yours outside for the summer, do make sure you bring it back inside early.

The ZZ plant is certainly not a heavy feeder and will probably do fine even if you never fertilize it, but to maintain good growth, a regular fertilizer regime at ⅛ to ¼ of the recommended rate, applied during its spring through early fall growing season, is best. You can use the fertilizer of your choice.

Finally, repot after a few years or when the plant outgrows its pot.


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A ZZ plant cut into two and ready to be planted. Source: www.jackwallington.com

Mature plants can be divided, although they may take 5 years or more to reach a size where you’d be comfortable trying. Study at your plant and if you can see it’s composed of two or three distinct clumps, you can unpot it, separate the clumps by cutting between them with a sharp knife and repot them individually.

Mostly, though, home gardeners start new plants from leaflet cuttings.

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Leaf cuttings at various stages. Source: edis.ifas.ufl.edu

The leaflets are actually quite fragile and easily knocked off: always a good excuse to try a bit of multiplication. Just insert the lower end of the leaflet into a moist growing medium and water as needed so it doesn’t become totally dry … and that means not very often. Perhaps once a month or so.

An underground tuber-like growth forms first and, then roots and finally, a first leaf. Sometimes the green leaflet has time to turn yellow, then brown before there is any visible sign of life above ground, but don’t give up: there is probably a tuber at the base of the leaf and, if so, a new plant will form, although that can take a year, sometimes even two … and no, that is not an exaggeration!

You can also use an entire leaf as a cutting, but you’ll still just get one plant at the end.

Pests and Problems

As mentioned, rot is the most likely cause of any ZZ plant death. It usually sets in when the plant is left soaking in water for long periods. Remember, with this plant, water only when the potting mix is truly dry to the touch.

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Scale insects and their sticky dejections on a ZZ plant. Source: ask.extension.org

Mealybugs and scale insects just love the ZZ plant and are hard to control. I once tried putting a scale-infested plant into complete dormancy, forcing it to lose all its leaves. Then I dug up and thoroughly cleaned the rhizomes. When it grew back many months later, the scale insects came back too!

Try removing any visible insects with a soft, soapy cloth, then spray repeatedly with isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol) to, hopefully, kill any nymphs. If that doesn’t work, toss the plant and only use the pot again after a truly thorough cleaning.

Toxic or Not?

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The ZZ plant is not edible, but then, apparently not as poisonous as once thought either. Source: clipartxtras.com

The ZZ plant is an aroid, all of which are usually considered poisonous because they produce calcium oxalate, which can cause painful irritations if ingested. For years, the ZZ plant was thus deemed “guilty by association” and even listed by many sources as highly toxic.

However, recent studies suggest that the ZZ plant is considerably less toxic than most other aroids and in fact, possibly not toxic at all.

While waiting for further studies to be done, it would still be wise to keep this plant out of reach of children and pets.


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Variegated ZZ plant. Source: MonsteraCo.

Recently, a few cultivars have appeared, none widely available at the moment.

‘Raven’, with dark purple black foliage on a more compact plant (30 inches/75 cm).

‘Zamicro’, a dwarf version (16 inches x 12 inches/40 cm x 30 cm) for tight spots.

There is also a variegated ZZ plant out there (I saw one specimen in the Berlin Botanical Garden and it was gorgeous!), but it’s outrageously expensive.

The ZZ plant: original and easy to the point of being nearly unkillable. Give one soon as a gift to some poor brown thumber who desperately needs a bit of a confidence boost in his or her gardening abilities!

15 Easy Houseplants for Beginners


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Start with easy houseplants before you move on to the more complicated ones. Source: Darlene Taylor, YouTube

Why do novice gardeners always seem to start with the most complicated houseplants? Gardenias, bonsais, carnivorous plants, living stones and, in fact, flowering plants in general (hibiscus, azaleas, etc.) are the ones even the most experienced gardeners often struggle to grow. Ideally, if you’re a beginning gardener, you’d start with easy plants, ones that can put up with both a bit of neglect and overly enthusiastic care.

Once you’ve successfully kept a few easy plants alive and in reasonably good shape for a year or so, consider your thumb to be getting green. Then you’ll be ready to move on to more difficult varieties.

The following 15 plants are about as close to unkillable as any plant could be and will succeed in almost all indoor conditions. In particular, they’ll tolerate low light and irregular waterings, always the leading causes of houseplant death, and will also put up with dry air, another major problem in many homes.

  1. Aspidistra or Cast Iron Plant (Aspidistra elatior)

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Aspidistra (Aspidistra elatior). Source: www.palmaverde.nl

This old-fashioned houseplant is back on the market. It gets the common name from its cast-iron constitution. Or maybe it’s slow growth is what gives the impression it’s made of cast iron. In fact, though, it does grow, only very slowly. An aspidistra looks rather like a giant clump of lily of the valley, but without the flowers. Its dark green leathery leaves are sometimes spotted or striped yellow or white. It’s very tolerant of low light and in fact, doesn’t much appreciate full sun.

  1. Chinese Evergreen (Aglaonema)

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Chinese Evergreen (Aglaonema). Source: http://www.homedepot.com

This is an upright-growing plant with short, thick stems and fleshy lanceolate leaves, often marked with silver and sometimes, in newer cultivars, with pink or red instead. Its growth is extremely slow … but it tolerates all but the darkest corners! It may even bloom one day and produce attractive red berries … but that can take years! It’s best to consider it as being a foliage plant.

  1. Dieffenbachia or Dumbcane (Dieffenbachia)

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Dieffenbachia (Dieffenbachia). Source: www.homedepot.com

This is a strongly upright growing plant erect with a thick “trunk” and huge broad leaves usually spotted with white. When it reaches the ceiling (and it will over time), just cut off the top and reroot it as a cutting. A new stalk will also appear from the base of the mother plant. The name dumbcane refers to the fact that it’s toxic sap can render the chewer temporarily incapable of speech, but don’t ever chew on this plant, even as a joke: it’s poisonous! This is an old-time favorite, often found in dark churches and office hallways where it has apparently been growing since forever.

  1. Dracaena or Dragon Tree (Dracaena spp.)

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Dracaena (Dracaena fragrans ‘Massangeana’). Source: http://www.homedepot.com

There are several species of Dracaena, but the easiest to cultivate is the so-called corn plant (D. fragans), the one with a thick, woody trunk and large, arching, lanceolate leaves, sometimes with a yellowish band in the center. It does indeed look like a corn plant! D. deremensis, often just called dracaena, is similar and indeed, is now considered simply a variety of D. fragrans (yes, change your plant label!). Just as easy to grow as the original D. fragrans, it has narrower, darker green leaves, sometimes striped white or yellow.

  1. Dwarf Schefflera or Dwarf Umbrella Tree (Schefflera arboricola, syn. Heptapleurum arboricola)

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Dwarf Schefflera (Schefflera arboricola). Source: http://www.plantandpot.nz

Much easier to grow than the other commonly grown schefflera, the one with larger leaves (S. actinophylla), the only truly dwarf thing about the dwarf schefflera is its leaves, as it can become quite a sizable indoor tree over time. It has dark green palmately compound leaves, definitely a bit umbrella like. In some cultivars, they are variegated with white, cream or yellow markings. Its branches tend to arch out at awkward angles: don’t hesitate to prune them back to stimulate denser, more attractive growth. A classic plant for banks and malls because of its indifference to neglect.

  1. False Shamrock (Oxalis triangularis, syn. O. regnellii)

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False Shamrock (Oxalis triangularis). Source: hop.harros-pflanzenwelt.de

No, it’s not a true shamrock (Trifolium), but it does bear three leaflets, each triangular in form. They can be green or purple, often with a silver or pink mark. Oddly, they close up at night. This is probably the easiest houseplant to bloom and indeed, flowers quite readily and pretty much all year, with pink or white flowers. It’s very easy to grow and can go fully dormant if you neglect it long enough, then sprout anew from its underground rhizomes when you start to water again. That said, it’s certainly not maintenance-free, always needing a bit of grooming, as there always seem to be a few dried leaves or dead flowers to remove.

  1. Fiddleleaf Fig (Ficus lyrata, syn. F. pandurata)

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Fiddleleaf Fig (Ficus lyrata). Source: http://www.homedepot.com

Probably the easiest of the many figs or ficuses sold as houseplants, it doesn’t drop its leaves when you move it like the more commonly grown weeping fig (Ficus benjamina). The large dark green leathery leaves are indeed fiddle-shaped, as the common name suggests. It becomes huge over time: don’t hesitate to cut it back when it goes too far.

  1. Heartleaf Philodendron (Philodendron hederaceum, formerly P. scandens, P. cordatum and P. oxycardium)

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Heartleaf philodendron (Philodendron hederaceum). Source: http://www.amazon.com

This climbing aroid bears dark green heart-shaped leaves. Its shade tolerance is legendary: I know of plants over 50 years old that have not seen a single ray of direct sun since they were purchased! You can grow this plant up a trellis or moss stake or let it dangle attractively from a hanging basket. Note that this plant has gone through several botanical name changes over the years and is now Philodendron hederaceum. Let’s hope this name sticks!

  1. Hoya, Wax Plant or Porcelainflower (Hoya carnosa)

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Hoya (Hoya carnosa). Source: Yvan Leduc, Wikimedia Commons

The hoya is one of the few plants that blooms well even in the shade. On the other hand, the growth of this climbing plant is terribly slow: it can take 5 to 10 years before producing its first umbels of pink or white perfumed flowers, each with a darker crown in the center. In the meantime, fortunately, its foliage is attractive: thick and waxy, sometimes variegated or curiously twisted. It’s a climbing or hanging plant whose stems tend to get out of hand, so you may need to do a bit of pruning.

  1. Ponytail Palm or Elephant’s Foot (Beaucarnea recurvata)

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Ponytail palm (Beaucarnea recurvata). Source: http://www.ikea.com

Succulent plant with a surprising tolerance of dark corners (most succulents require intense light). The trunk of this small tree is swollen at the base, like an elephant’s foot, while its long, narrow, often wavy leaves hang down like a pony tail, the source of its common names. It’s a tough, easy plant, but very slow growing.

  1. Pothos or Devil’s Ivy (Epipremnum aureum)

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Pothos (Epipremnum aureum ‘Marble Queen’). Source: http://www.instagram.com

Very similar in appearance and habit to the heartleaf philodendron, but with leaves not as distinctly heart-shaped and always streaked or marbled yellow or white. Like the philodendron, you can grow it either as a climber or a trailer.

  1. Snake Plant or Mother-in-law’s Tongue (Sansevieria trifasciata)

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Snake plant (Sansevieria trifasciata ‘Laurentii’). Source: http://www.homedepot.com

This succulent has long, leathery, lance-shaped, dark green leaves with gray mottling that rise from the soil in tight clumps. There are also both dwarf varieties (bird’s nest sansevierias) and cultivars with various kinds of leaf coloring, from entirely dark green to highly variegated. It’s one of the most shade-tolerant houseplants, although in fact it prefers intense sunlight.

  1. Spider Plant (Chlorophytum comosum)

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Spider plant (Chlorophytum comosum ‘Vittatum’). Source: brightside.me

Always popular, with a rosette of thin, arching, ribbon-like leaves often streaked with creamy white. It’s usually surrounded by countless “babies” on trailing umbilical cords (actually, stolons) and is popular as a hanging basket plant. It will tolerate most indoor conditions, but will stop producing plantlets if it doesn’t receive at least medium light.

  1. Syngonium or Arrowhead Vine (Sygonium)

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Syngonium (Syngonium podophyllum). Source: http://www.homedepot.com

Another obvious philodendron relative, just as resistant to low light. Young plants produce a compact rosette of arrow-shaped leaves sometimes marbled or streaked with cream, pink or red, but the plant completely changes its habit over time, developing long climbing or trailing stems and deeply cut leaves. You can prune it back to keep it in its juvenile appearance.

  1. ZZ Plant or Aroid Palm (Zamioculcas zamiifolia)

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ZZ Plant (Zamioculcas zamiifolia). Source: http://www.homedepot.com

This is plant is an aroid (as plants in the philodendron family are called), but it’s a very unusual one and it certainly couldn’t look less like a philodendron! Instead, it bears pinnate fronds with shiny leaflets and a distinctly swollen petiole, making it look like a palm or cycad, but without a trunk. It’s perfectly at ease in the shadiest spots and very tolerant of neglect.

Easy Peasy Plant Care

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Caring for these 15 houseplants is pretty basic. Source: clipart-library.com

Obviously, each of these plants has its preferences when it comes to growing conditions, but all of them are tolerant of a wide range of environments, from full sun to deep shade (with, I hope, at least some light: after all, the plants receive all their energy from the sun)! They also make great office plants, able to grow far from the nearest window, living strictly on light coming from ceiling fixtures. All are perfectly fine with normal indoor temperatures and will tolerate dry indoor air in winter … but most would still prefer good atmospheric humidity if you can supply it.

As for watering, simply apply the golden rule of watering: water deeply, enough to moisten the entire root ball, then allow the soil to dry before watering again. Really, caring for them couldn’t be easier!

You don’t even need to fertilize these plants! At least, not if you’re growing them in low light. Under good lighting, you can simply apply an all-purpose fertilizer at a quarter of the manufacturer’s recommended does from April to October.

And there you go! 15 houseplants that you can place almost anywhere indoors and that will decorate your home for decades. Practice using these very basic, hard-to-kill plants to build up your indoor gardening skills before you start experimenting with more complicated houseplants, such as flowering plants, bonsais, living stones and others.

Have fun!20180126A Darlene Taylor, YouTube