Some Like It Cold: Cold Treatment for Seeds

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Ill.: http://www.pngfly.com & http://www.iconfinder.com, montage: laidbackgardener.blog

Probably 95% of the seeds you might want to sow in your garden: annuals, vegetables, etc. need no pretreatment of any kind: you just sow them, water once and up they come! 

However, that doesn’t hold if you start growing perennials, trees and shrubs, at least those from cold and temperate climates. Oddly, many of these plants won’t germinate—or will germinate poorly or irregularly—unless they go through a prolonged period of cold weather. This process is called “cold stratification” because originally the seeds were layered (stratified) between layers of moist soil before exposing them to cold, but term “vernalization” is also used. The term “cold treatment” seems to be gaining ground, though, and it really does best explain the process.

The most obvious way of giving seeds a cold treatment is to sow them outside in the fall, but that often leaves them exposed to insects, mammals and inclement weather. It’s far safer to give seeds their cold treatment indoors, where you can keep a closer eye on them … and where nothing can eat them. It’s usually carried out in January or February so the young plants will be ready to plant out come spring.

Giving hardy seeds a cold treatment replicates what happens in the wild. There, the seeds fall to the ground in the autumn and remain there all winter, exposed to cold and moisture. Then they germinate in the spring when the weather warms up. 

The need for cold stratification developed over many millennia as a way of preventing seeds from germinating at the wrong season. Seeds that don’t need cold stratification often start to germinate when the weather is unusually warm in the late fall or when there is a January thaw, then the fragile seedlings are killed when cold weather returns. Those that have an obligatory need for stratification, however, won’t react to unseasonal conditions. They essentially have an internal clock telling them: “Look, it’s too early to germinate! Wait a few months more before you start to sprout.” In general, the longer the winters are in the plant’s native land, the longer the cold treatment it will require.

Cold and Moist

Beginners often don’t understand one vital detail: it’s not cold alone that stimulates germination, but cold combined with moisture. So you can’t just place the seed packets in a fridge for a few months and expect the seeds to germinate well, you need to put them into contact with moist soil first.

The other common error is freezing the seeds. Although most of these seeds will tolerate freezing temperatures, freezing the seeds is not necessary and actually slows the process down. For best results, give temperatures just above freezing, between 34 °F and 41 °F (1 °C and 5 °C). And as luck would have it, the temperature of a typical home refrigerator falls right in that range: about 35 °F to 40 °F (1.6 °C to 4.4 °C).

A cold treatment is pretty basic: just sow the seeds and put them in the fridge. Photo: pinetreegardenseeds.wordpress.com

At the end of the cold treatment, remove the containers from the fridge and place them in a warm bright spot (about 70 to 75˚F/21 to 24˚C is ideal for most seeds) to stimulate germination. Many of these seeds are fairly slow to germinate, so don’t be surprised if they take 3 or 4 weeks to sprout, sometimes even longer.

All these seeds require a minimum number of weeks in the cold, but there is no maximum. So, no harm comes if you prolong the cold treatment beyond the minimum.

After their cold treatment, the seeds will start to germinate.

From this stage on, simply treat the seedlings like any other. After germination, remove the plastic bag. Start watering whenever the soil starts to dry out. Fertilize when the plants have about four to five true leaves, etc. Finally, when the weather outdoors warms up enough, start acclimatizing the seedlings to outdoor conditions (place them in the shade for two or three days, then in partial shade for two or three days, then in the sun for two or three days). 

Once they’re well acclimatized, transplant them either to a nursery (plants, such as trees, shrubs and slow-growing perennials, that will take more than a year to be presentable) or directly to their final location (annuals and fast-growing perennials).

No Space in Your Fridge?

You can also sow the seeds in packs of moist vermiculite or perlite. Photo: http://www.wyomingnativegardens.org

If you lack space in your fridge, you can try a different method of cold stratification. Simply mix the seed in a few spoonfuls of moist vermiculite, perlite or potting soil. Seal the mix in a small plastic bag and put it in the fridge (this takes much less space and you can even pile your bags of seeds one on top of the other). When their cold period is up, simply lay the seed bags somewhere warm and fairly bright. As soon as you see little sprouts start to appear, very carefully pot up each seedling in its own little pot and water. Then proceed from there as above, growing them on and eventually planting them out.

Double Cold Stratification

For some seeds, a single cold treatment is not enough. It takes two! These seeds are very slow to germinate in the wild, often taking 2 or 3 years before they show any sign of life. However, you can get them germinate the very first year treating them to a double cold stratification. Here’s how:

Give the seeds 2 to 3 months in the fridge, expose them to warmth for 2 months, then put them back in the refrigerator for 2–3 months. This time, when you bring them out of the fridge, they should start to germinate … and if they don’t? Put them back in the fridge and try again. It once took me 4 alternating cold and warm treatments to get some stubborn trillium seeds to sprout!

100 Seeds Requiring a Cold Treatment

Here are 100 plants that germinate best with a cold treatment (there are thousands of others). Check the seed envelope or the seed supplier’s web site for more information.

  1. Abies (fir)
  2. Acer (maple, most species)
  3. Aconitum (aconite)
  4. Alchemilla (lady’s mantle)
  5. Allium (ornamental onion)
  6. Amelanchier (serviceberry)
  7. Aquilegia (columbine)
  8. Asclepias (milkweed, some species)
  9. Astrantia (masterwort)
  10. Baptisia (false indigo)
  11. Buddleia (butterfly bush)
  12. Caltha (marsh marigold)
  13. Caryopteris (bluebeard)
  14. Cercis canadensis (redbud)
  15. Chelone (turtlehead)
  16. Cimicifuga (bugbane)
  17. Clematis (clematis)
  18. Cornus (dogwood)
  19. Corydalis (fumitory)
  20. Delphinium (delphinium)
  21. Dicentra spectabilis, now Lamprocapnos spectabilis (bleeding heart)
  22. Dictamnus (gas plant)
  23. Dodecatheon (shooting star)
  24. Echinacea (purple coneflower)
  25. Eremurus (foxtail lily)
  26. Eryngium (sea holly)
  27. Eupatorium (Joe Pye weed)
  28. Filipendula (meadowsweet)
  29. Forsythia (forsythia)
  30. Fragaria (strawberry)
  31. Fuchsia (fuchsia)
  32. Gentiana (gentian)
  33. Geranium (perennial geranium, cranesbill)
  34. Goniolimon (German statice)
  35. Helianthemum (rock rose)
  36. Helianthus (perennial sunflower)
  37. Heliopsis (false sunflower)
  38. Helleborus (Christmas rose)
  39. Hemerocallis (daylily)
  40. Heuchera (coral bells)
  41. Hibiscus moscheutos (perennial hibiscus)
  42. Hypericum (St. John’s wort)
  43. Iberis (perennial candytuft)
  44. Ilex* (holly)
  45. Incarvillea (hardy gloxinia)
  46. Iris (iris, many species)
  47. Kirengeshoma (waxbells)
  48. Knautia (knautia)
  49. Lathyrus (perennial sweet pea)
  50. Lavandula (lavender)
  51. Leontopodium (edelweiss)
  52. Lobelia (hardy lobelia)
  53. Lonicera (honeysuckle)
  54. Macleaya (plume poppy)
  55. Magnolia* (magnolia)
  56. Malus (apple, crabapple)
  57. Mazus (creeping mazus)
  58. Mertensia (Virginia bluebells)
  59. Muscari (grape hyacinth)
  60. Myrrhis odorata (sweet cicely)
  61. Nepeta (catmint)
  62. Oenothera (evening Primrose)
  63. Opuntia* (beavertail cactus)
  64. Paeonia* (pivoine)
  65. Penstemon (beard-tongue)
  66. Persicaria (fleeceflower)
  67. Persicaria orientalis, syn. Polygonum orientale (kiss-me-over-the-garden-gate)
  68. Phlox (phlox)
  69. Physalis (Chinese lantern)
  70. Picea (spruce)
  71. Platycodon (balloon flower)
  72. Primula (primrose)
  73. Pulsatilla (pasque flower)
  74. Quercus (red and black oaks)
  75. Ranunculus (buttercup)
  76. Ratibida (prairie coneflower)
  77. Rosa (rose)
  78. Rudbeckia (black-eyed Susan)
  79. Sambucus (elderberry)
  80. Sanguinaria (bloodroot)
  81. Sanguisorba (burnet)
  82. Saponaria (soapwort)
  83. Saxifraga (saxifrage)
  84. Scabiosa (pincushion flower)
  85. Sedum (stonecrop)
  86. Sempervivum (houseleek, hen and chicks)
  87. Sidalcea (prairie mallow)
  88. Silphium (cup plant, compass plant)
  89. Staphylea* (bladdernut)
  90. Stokesia (Stokes’ aster)
  91. Syringa (lilac)
  92. Thalictrum (meadow-rue)
  93. Tiarella (foamflower)
  94. Tricyrtis (toad-lily)
  95. Trillium* (trillium)
  96. Trollius (globeflower)
  97. Tsuga (hemlock)
  98. Vernonia (ironweed)
  99. Veronica (speedwell)
  100. Viola (violets)
  101. Vitis (grape, some species)

*Some species in this genus require a double cold stratification.

If in doubt, find out where the plant grows in the wild. If it comes from a cold region and its seeds ripen in the fall, there is a very good chance that its seeds will require a cold treatment to germinate.

Adapted from an article originally published on January 8, 2016.

Only January, Yet Already Time to Sow Seeds?

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20180103 ENG worldartsme.com, rdkate.blogspot.ca & mzayat.com.jpg

It’s only January! Surely it’s too soon to sow seeds? Source: worldartsme.com, rdkate.blogspot.ca & mzayat. com

The new year has barely begun, yet now and over the coming month it’s already time to start certain seeds indoors.

This is a very select group of especially slow-to-mature plants. January is far too early for most seeds (think March or April instead), but you need about four to five months of indoor culture to bring the following plants to the right state of growth for outdoor planting.

  1. Agastache (Agastache foeniculum)
  2. Datura (Datura metel)
  3. Fairy Snapdragon (Chaenorrhinum origanifolium, syn. glaerosum)
  4. Lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflora)
  5. Spike dracaena or cabbage palm (Cordyline australis, syn. indivisa)
  6. Tritome (Kniphofia )
  7. Tuberous Begonia (Begonia × tuberhybrida)

No Easy Feat!

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Artificial light is almost essential for seeds started in January. Source: laidbackgardener. blog

Starting seed in January in the Northern Hemisphere is not simple. The days are short, the sun is weak and, in many areas, the weather is gray more often than sunny, meaning light is seriously lacking. Also, temperatures in front of the average windowsill are cool, yet almost all seeds need warmth—and fairly even temperatures—to germinate well. As a result, you pretty much have to start these under artificial lights, such as fluorescent or LED plant lights, and in the warmest part of your home.

20180103D www.amazon.fr.jpg

Germinate the seedlings under glass, possibly over a heating pad, as above. Source: www.amazon.fr

Always start winter-sown seeds “under glass” (under some sort of transparent covering) to maintain high humidity and stable temperatures and in a room that is at least moderately warm (72 to 75˚ F/21 to 24˚ C) or place the seed containers on a heating pad (one specifically designed for plants). Use a timer to set the day length of your lamp at 14 hours to simulate the long days of summer and place the containers of freshly sown seeds about 6 to 12 inches (15 to 30 cm) below the lamp. Now, wait patiently for germination to occur. (One reason that certain seeds need early sowing is that they are slow to germinate.)

Seeds That Require a Cold Treatment

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Many tree, shrub and perennial seeds need a cold treatment before they will germinate. Source: laidbackgardener. blog

January (or December or February) is also a good time to start seeds that need a cold treatment (cold stratification) to germinate well. This group includes most trees and shrubs from cold and temperate climates, but also many perennials and even a few annuals.

These seeds will not germinate until they have received a given number of days of cool, moist conditions, from as little as one or two weeks to four months or more, information you would (hopefully) find on the seed pack.

The number of weeks given is the minimum requirement for that species, but there is no maximum. So, if you keep seeds that need, say, a two-week treatment in the cold for two months, that’s not a problem. That’s nice to know, because the information on the minimum cold treatment for seed X is not always available, especially for seed you harvested yourself. If you don’t know, I suggest giving seeds of perennials a six to eight-week cold treatment: that’s usually enough. For trees and shrubs, I’d recommend three months.

Simply sow these seeds in a container as you would any other, then seal them inside a clear plastic bag and pop them into the refrigerator or cold room for at least the minimum number of weeks. Afterwards, move them to a warm, well-lit spot, on a windowsill or under lights, for germination to start.

100 Seeds That Need a Cold Treatment

Here are 100 plants that germinate best with a cold treatment (there are thousands of others!). Check the seed envelope or the seed supplier’s web site for more information.

  1. Abies (fir)
  2. Acer (maple, mosts species)
  3. Aconitum (aconite)
  4. Alchemilla (lady’s mantle)
  5. Allium (ornemental onion)
  6. Amelanchier (serviceberry)
  7. Aquilegia (columbine)
  8. Asclepias (milkweed, some species)
  9. Astrantia (masterwort)
  10. Baptisia (false indigo)
  11. Buddleia (butterfly bush)
  12. Caltha (marsh marigold)
  13. Caryopteris (bluebeard)
  14. Cercis canadensis (redbud)
  15. Chelone (turtlehead)
  16. Cimicifuga (bugbane)
  17. Clematis (clematis)
  18. Cornus (dogwood)
  19. Corydalis (fumitory)
  20. Delphinium (delphinium)
  21. Dicentra spectabilis, now Lamprocapnos spectabilis (bleeding heart)
  22. Dictamnus (gas plant)
  23. Dodecatheon (shooting star)
  24. Echinacea (purple coneflower)
  25. Eremurus (foxtail lily)
  26. Eryngium (sea holly)
  27. Eupatorium (Joe Pye weed)
  28. Filipendula (meadowsweet)
  29. Forsythia (forsythia)
  30. Fragaria (strawberry)
  31. Fuchsia (fuchsia)
  32. Gentiana (gentian)
  33. Geranium (perennial geranium, cranesbill)
  34. Goniolimon (German statice)
  35. Helianthemum (rock rose)
  36. Helianthus (perennial sunflower)
  37. Heliopsis (false sunflower)
  38. Helleborus (Christmas rose)
  39. Hemerocallis (daylily)
  40. Heuchera (coral bells)
  41. Hibiscus moscheutos (perennial hibiscus)
  42. Hypericum (St. John’s wort)
  43. Iberis (perennial candytuft)
  44. Ilex* (holly)
  45. Incarvillea (hardy gloxinia)
  46. Iris (iris, many species)
  47. Kirengeshoma (waxbells)
  48. Knautia (knautia)
  49. Lathyrus (perennial sweet pea)
  50. Lavandula (lavender)
  51. Leontopodium (edelweiss)
  52. Lobelia (hardy lobelia)
  53. Lonicera (honeysuckle)
  54. Macleaya (plume poppy)
  55. Magnolia* (magnolia)
  56. Malus (apple, crabapple)
  57. Mazus (creeping mazus)
  58. Mertensia (Virginia bluebells)
  59. Muscari (grape hyacinth)
  60. Myrrhis odorata (sweet cicely)
  61. Nepeta (catmint)
  62. Oenothera (evening Primrose)
  63. Opuntia* (beavertail cactus)
  64. Paeonia* (pivoine)
  65. Penstemon (beard-tongue)
  66. Persicaria (fleeceflower)
  67. Persicaria orientalis, syn. Polygonum orientale (kiss-me-over-the-garden-gate)
  68. Phlox (phlox)
  69. Physalis (Chinese lantern)
  70. Picea (spruce)
  71. Platycodon (balloon flower)
  72. Primula (primrose)
  73. Pulsatilla (pasque flower)
  74. Quercus (red and black oaks)
  75. Ranunculus (buttercup)
  76. Ratibida (prairie coneflower)
  77. Rosa (rose)
  78. Rudbeckia (black-eyed Susan)
  79. Sambucus (elderberry)
  80. Sanguinaria (bloodroot)
  81. Sanguisorba (burnet)
  82. Saponaria (soapwort)
  83. Saxifraga (saxifrage)
  84. Scabiosa (pincushion flower)
  85. Sedum (stonecrop)
  86. Sempervivum (houseleek)
  87. Sidalcea (prairie mallow)
  88. Staphylea* (bladdernut)
  89. Stokesia (Stokes’ aster)
  90. Syringa (lilac)
  91. Thalictrum (meadow-rue)
  92. Tiarella (foamflower)
  93. Tricyrtis (toad-lily)
  94. Trillium* (trillium)
  95. Trollius (globeflower)
  96. Tsuga (hemlock)
  97. Vernonia (ironweed)
  98. Veronica (speedwell)
  99. Viola (violets)
  100. Vitis (grape, some species)
*Some species in this genus require a double cold stratification: that is, two cold treatments separated by warm one, to germinate well. Try two to three months of cold followed by two months of warmth, then again two to three months of cold. When you expose them to warmth after these repeated treatments, most will germinate quite readily.

Good growing!20180103 ENG worldartsme.com, rdkate.blogspot.ca & mzayat.com.jpg

Cold Treatment in a Crowded Fridge

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20160215AB.jpgMany perennial seeds, shrubs and trees need a long period of moist cold before they will germinate. In fact, I wrote about the subject fairly recently, including a list of seeds that need a cold treatment. See Time to Give Hardy Seeds Their Cold Treatment. But the technique explained how to sow seeds in small pots that are then stored in the refrigerator for up to 3 months… and not everyone has enough space in the family fridge for pots of seedlings. Fortunately, there is a space-saving solution.

Before I explain that, however, it is important to understand simply putting the seed pack as is in the refrigerator will have no effect. To stimulate germination, these seeds need to be exposed to both cold and moisture. However, you can easily give the seeds a cold treatment without either pots or soil and thus save space.

20160215B.pngJust moisten a paper towel and wring it out (you want it to be slightly moist, not soggy). Place the seeds you want to germinate on the paper towel, then fold it in half, pressing the top half down on the seeds to ensure a good contact. Slip the paper towel into a plastic sandwich bag and place the bag in the refrigerator, flat or even upright. It will take much less space than a pot of soil. You can even stack multiple bags on top of each other or place a carton of milk or other objects on top of the bag or bags, so essentially they take up no space in the refrigerator.

Don’t forget to insert a label with the plant’s name and the date you sowed them inside the bag or to write that information on the outside of the bag.

Most seeds will need 2 or 3 months of cold. When this period is over, take them out of their bag and simply sow them in pots of moist soil, reusing their plastic bag as mini-greenhouse until they germinate. Next expose the pot to warm temperatures in a well-lit spot and when the seedlings emerge, remove the plastic bag and grow them on as you would with any other seedling.

There you go! There are more steps involved, but at least you’ll have room for something besides pots of seeds in your refrigerator over the coming months!

Time to Give Hardy Seeds Their Cold Treatment

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20160108C

Many hardy seeds will only germinate if given a cold treatment.

Many seeds require a lengthy period of cold temperatures before they will germinate. This group includes most trees and shrubs from cold and temperate climates, but also many perennials and even a few annuals. This process is called “cold stratification” because originally the seeds were layered (stratified) between layers of moist soil before exposing them to cold, but term “vernalization” is also used. The term “cold treatment” seems to be gaining ground, though, and it really does best explain the process.

The most obvious way of giving seeds a cold treatment is to sow them outside in the fall, but that often leaves them exposed to insects, mammals and inclement weather. It’s far safer to give seeds their cold treatment indoors, where you can keep a closer eye on them… and where nothing can eat them. It’s usually carried out in January or February so the young plants will be ready to plant out come spring.

Giving hardy seeds a cold treatment replicates what happens in the wild. There the seeds fall to the ground in the autumn and remain there all winter, exposed to cold and moisture. Then they germinate in the spring when the weather warms up. And many seeds require this cold-to-warm cycle: without it, they won’t germinate or will do so only very poorly.

The need for cold stratification developed over many millennia as a way of preventing seeds from germinating at the wrong season. Seeds that don’t need cold stratification often start to germinate when the weather is unusually warm in the late fall or when there is a January thaw, then the fragile seedlings are killed when cold weather returns. Those that have an obligatory need for stratification, however, won’t react to unseasonal conditions. They essentially have an internal clock telling them: “Look, it’s too early to germinate! Wait a few months more before you start to sprout.” In general, the longer the winters are in the plant’s native land, the longer the cold treatment it will require.

Cold and Moist

Beginners often don’t understand a vital detail: it’s not cold alone that stimulates germination, but cold combined with moisture. So you can’t just place the seed packets in a fridge for a few months and expect the seeds to germinate well, you need to put them into contact with moist soil first.

The other common error is freezing the seeds. Although most of these seeds will tolerate freezing temperatures, freezing the seeds is not necessary and actually slows the process down. For best results, give temperatures just above freezing, between 34°F and 41°F (1°C and 5°C). And as luck would have it, the temperature of a typical domestic refrigerator typical falls right in that range: about 35°F to 40°F (1.6°C to 4.4°C).

487.K

Sow the sees and put them in the fridge.

Traditionally, you sow the seeds that require a cold treatment in pot or tray, seal it inside a transparent plastic bag and place the container in the refrigerator. Just how long the cold treatment has to last depends on the species, from as little as 1 or 2 weeks to 4 months or more. Ideally you’d check the seed packet label for information. In case of doubt (for example, if you harvested seed yourself and have no idea of its needs), try three months. All these seeds require a minimum number of weeks in the cold, but there is no maximum. So no harm comes from prolonging the cold treatment beyond the minimum.

At the end of the cold treatment, remove the containers from the fridge and place them in a warm bright spot (about 21 to 24˚C is ideal for most seeds) to stimulate germination. Many of these seeds are fairly slow to germinate, so don’t be surprised if they take 3 or 4 weeks, sometimes even longer.

20160108B

After their cold treatment, the seeds will start to germinate.

From this stage on, simply treat the seedlings like any other. After germination, remove the plastic bag. Start watering whenever the soil starts to dry out. Fertilize when the plants have about four to five true leaves, etc. Finally, when the weather outdoors warms up enough, start acclimating the seedlings to outdoor conditions (place them in the shade for two or three days, then in partial shade for two or three days, then in the sun for two or three days). Once they’re well acclimated, transplant them either to a nursery (plants, such as trees, shrubs and slow-growing perennials, that will take more than a year to be presentable) or directly to their final location (annuals and fast-growing perennials).

If You Lack Fridge Space

20160108D

You can also sow the seeds in packs of moist vermiculite.

If you lack space in your fridge, you can try a different method of cold stratification. Simply mix the seed in a few spoonfuls of moist vermiculite. Seal the vermiculite in a small plastic bag and put it in the fridge (this takes much less space and you can even pile your bags of seeds one on top of the other). When their cold period is up, simply lay the seed bags somewhere warm and fairly bright. As soon as you see little sprouts start to appear, very carefully pot up each seedling in its own little pot and water. Then proceed from there as above, growing them on and eventually planting them out.

Double Cold Stratification

For some seeds, a single cold treatment is not enough. It takes two! These seeds are very slow to germinate in the wild, often taking 2 or 3 years before they show any sign of life. However, you can get them germinate the very first year treating them to a double cold stratification. Here’s how:

Give the seeds 2 to 3 months in the fridge, expose them to warmth for 2 months, then put them back in the refrigerator for 2-3 months. This time, when you bring them out of the fridge, they should start to germinate… and if they don’t? Put them back in the fridge and try again. It once took me 4 alternating cold and warm treatments to get some stubborn trillium seeds to sprout!

Species Requiring a Cold Treatment

Here is a partial list of the seeds that normally require a cold treatment to germinate. However, there are many others. Always read the instructions on the back of the seed packet to see if the seeds you bought need this kind of care… or check out their needs on the Internet.

If in doubt, find out where the plant grows in the wild. If comes from a cold region and its seeds ripen in the fall, there is a very good chance that its seeds will require a cold treatment to germinate.

  1. Althaea (marshmallow)
  2. Astrantia (masterwort)
  3. Baptisia (false indigo)
  4. Buddleia (butterfly bush)
  5. Caltha (marsh marigold)
  6. Caryopteris (bluebeard)
  7. Cercis canadensis (redbud)
  8. Chelone (turtlehead)
  9. Cimicifuga (bugbane)
  10. Clematis (clematis)
  11. Cornus (dogwood)
  12. Corydalis (fumitory)
  13. Delphinium (delphinium)
  14. Dicentra spectabilis, now Lamprocapnos spectabilis (bleeding heart)
  15. Dictamnus (gas plant)
  16. Dodecatheon (shooting star)
  17. Echinacea (purple coneflower)
  18. Eremurus (foxtail lily)
  19. Filipendula (meadowsweet)
  20. Eryngium (sea holly)
  21. Eupatorium (Joe Pye weed)
  22. Forsythia (forsythia)
  23. Fragaria (strawberry)
  24. Fuchsia (fuchsia)
  25. Gentiana (gentian)
  26. Geranium (cranesbill)
  27. Goniolimon (German statice)
  28. Helianthemum (rock rose)
  29. Helianthus (perennial sunflower)
  30. Heliopsis (false sunflower)
  31. Helleborus (Christmas rose)
  32. Hemerocallis (daylily)
  33. Heuchera (coral bells)
  34. Hibiscus moscheutos (perennial hibiscus)
  35. Hypericum (St. John’s wort)
  36. Iberis (perennial candytuft)
  37. Ilex* (holly)
  38. Incarvillea (hardy gloxinia)
  39. Kirengeshoma (waxbells)
  40. Knautia (knautia)
  41. Lathyrus (perennial sweet pea)
  42. Lavandula (lavender)
  43. Leontopodium (edelweiss)
  44. Iris (iris, many species)
  45. Lobelia (hardy lobelia)
  46. Lonicera (honeysuckle)
  47. Macleaya (plume poppy)
  48. Magnolia* (magnolia)
  49. Malus (apple, crabapple)
  50. Mazus (creeping mazus)
  51. Mertensia (virginia bluebells)
  52. Myrrhis odorata (sweet cicely)
  53. Nepeta (catmint)
  54. Oenothera (evening Primrose)
  55. Muscari (grape hyacinth)
  56. Opuntia* (beavertail cactus)
  57. Paeonia* (pivoine)
  58. Penstemon (beard-tongue)
  59. Persicaria (fleeceflower)
  60. Phlox (phlox)
  61. Physalis (chinese lantern)
  62. Persicaria orientalis, syn. Polygonum orientale (kiss-me-over-the-garden-gate)
  63. Picea (spruce)
  64. Platycodon (balloon flower)
  65. Primula (primrose)
  66. Pulsatilla (pasque-flower)
  67. Quercus (red and black oaks)
  68. Ranunculus (buttercup)
  69. Ratibida (prairie coneflower)
  70. Rosa (rose)
  71. Rudbeckia (black-eyed Susan)
  72. Sambucus (elderberry)
  73. Sanguinaria (bloodroot)
  74. Sanguisorba (burnet)
  75. Saponaria (soapwort)
  76. Saxifraga (saxifrage)
  77. Scabiosa (pincushion flower)
  78. Sedum (stonecrop)
  79. Sempervivum (houseleek)
  80. Sidalcea (prairie mallow)
  81. Silphium (cup plant, compass plant)
  82. Staphylea* (bladdernut)
  83. Stokesia (Stokes’ aster)
  84. Syringa (lilac)
  85. Thalictrum (meadow-rue)
  86. Tiarella (foamflower)
  87. Tricyrtis (toad-lily)
  88. Trillium* (trillium)
  89. Trollius (globeflower)
  90. Tsuga (hemlock)
  91. Vernonia (ironweed)
  92. Veronica (speedwell)
  93. Viola (violets)
  94. Vitis (grape, some species)

*Some species in this genus require a double cold stratification.

Sowing Seeds in February: Still a Bit Early

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20150201CAs the days get longer and indoor plants begin to produce new shoots, indoor gardeners often get antsy and start looking for something – anything! – they can do to activate their green thumb. And that often includes sowing seeds too early.

Remember the old adage “slow and steady wins the race”? Aesop was obviously a gardener! Seeds have to be started at just the right time to give the best results. Yet, the opposite seems so logical! if I sow my tomatoes (or my petunias or my peppers) earlier that I’m supposed to, won’t I get faster resultst? Nope, you won’t. In fact, quite the opposite.

I get plenty of emails from people who want to know what to do about their cucumbers (just an example) that are scrambling all over their living room and beginning to bloom long before the frost is out of the ground. These overgrown plants will never fruit or bloom well indoors, yet when you finally can plant them outdoors, they just collapse. Ideally, seedlings should be young and vigorous when you plant them not, not yet in flower or even in bud. In fact, if anything, it’s better to sow seeds a bit late than a bit early. Experienced gardeners have already learned that sowing seeds too early is a mistake; it’s the neophytes who, in their enthusiasm, get going too soon in the spring.

20150201ARight now, in early February, the days are still too short for seeds to do well in front of a window except in the tropics and subtropics. The few seeds that need early sowing indoors prefer begin grown under fluorescent lights where you can provide 14 to 16-hour days..

The following are among the (very rare) seeds to sow in early February:

Tuberous begonia (Begonia x tuberhybrida) (warning: keep lighting under 15 hours for this one)
Canterbury Bells (Campanula medium)
Double datura (Datura metel) (but sow Datura stramonium direct in the garden in May)
Fairy Snapdragon (Chaenorrhinum organifolium, syn. C. glaerosum)
Ferns
Dame’s rocket (Hesperis matronalis)
Laurentia (Laurentia axillaris or, more correctly, Isotoma axillaris )
Lavender (Lavandula)
Perennials that require a cold treatment to germinate (Aconitum, Agastache, Anemone, Astrantia, Dictamnus, DelphiniumGentiana, Helleborus, Helianthus, Hibiscus, Kniphofia, Lilium, Maianthemum, Eryngium, Paeonia, Primula, Scabiosa, Thalictrum, Trollius, etc.)

487.KCold Treatment: For these special plants, sow the seeds in February in a pot of damp growing mix, seal the pot inside a plastic bag and place it in the fridge. In mid-March or early April, expose the pot to light and heat to stimulate germination. Note also that temperate-climate trees, shrubs and evergreens almost always need a cold treatment to germinate well.

Note: The list above was developed for Northern gardeners (hardiness zones 3 to 6), that is, for a climate where planting outdoors usually begins in late May or early June. For readers who garden in more temperate regions, I suggest you consult a specialist in your area about what to sow in February.