The Gentle Giant


The cup plant is big and beautiful. Photo:

The gentle giant I’m referring to is a very large and very attractive, easy-to-grow perennial called the cup plant (Silphium perfoliatum). You commonly see it in botanical gardens, but not as often in home gardens and I think it’s time to change that, so I’m sharing here what I know about this stunning goliath.

Distribution of the cup plant in the wild. Ill.:

In the wild, the cup plant found throughout much of eastern North America. Once limited mostly to moist prairies, flood plains and open woodlands, it’s one of those plant that has greatly profited from human intervention. As the great eastern forests were cleared and farmland installed, it moved into hedgerows and ditches and settled in along railroad tracks. 

This plant is easily recognizable by its huge opposite dark green and shiny leaves, triangular in outline, because they are perfoliate, that is to say that they are welded together at the base, which gives the impression that they are pierced by the thick stem which is, curiously, winged and square. No other plant looks like that, guaranteeing a rapid identification.

Birds and Bees

The water-filled cup of the cup plant. Photo:

The toothed leaves arch up and out, creating a cup at the base of the conjoined leaves where rainwater collects. This depression that fills with water gives the plant its common name: cup plant. The cup appeals very much to birds, who can drink from it or even bathe in the water without having to land on the ground (always risky for birds, since most of their predators are terrestrial). And it makes a great lesson in ecology to share with young children. Your project could be “today, let’s plant a birdbath.” 

American goldfinch delecting the seeds of a cup plant. Photo:

In addition, birds, especially goldfinches, also appreciate its seeds, produced in October. So, it’s a great plant to use if you want to attract birds to your garden.

The cup plant is very popular with bees of all sorts. Photo:

But the flowers also attract butterflies and, especially, bees. Bees of all sizes and shapes visit the nectar-rich flowers, including honeybees. In fact, in Germany it is becoming more and more popular as a honey flower, especially useful because the plant blooms for such a long time (2 months and more) and its nectar produces a honey of excellent quality.

Compass Plant

The leaves are set at right angles and point to the 4 cardinal directions. Photo:

Note too that the pairs of leaves are always placed at right angles and legend has it that they always point to the four cardinal directions, hence its other common name: compass plant, one it shares with other plants in the genus Silphium. I’m not sure how you could use this living compass to find your way home if you get lost in your garden, though.

Giants Need Space

The cup plant does take up a considerable amount of space in the garden. Photo:

I said the cup plant was a giant and I’m sure most people would agree with me. When in bloom, it measures between 6 to 10 feet (180 to 300 cm) tall and 3 to 4 feet (90 to 120 cm) wide. If you space plants about 30 to 40 inches apart (75 to 100 cm), you can create a beautiful perennial hedge! Given its size, it’s otherwise mostly used as a background plant for large perennial borders or as a stunning stand-alone plant. Its thick stems are very robust and therefore no staking is normally required.

The flowers are typical for a plant in the daisy family. Photo: Annette Meyer, Pixabay

The inch-wide (2.5 cm) flowers borne in dense clusters at the top of the plant are typical of those of the Asteraceae family (daisy family): an inflorescence composed of hundreds of florets forming a central disc which is surrounded with elongated yellow ray flowers. As a result, the bloom resembles a small sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and that plant is, indeed, a close relative.

Given the height of the plant, the blossoms are something you have to look up to see. It starts to bloom from late June in the South to the end of July in the North and usually continues into September.

The flowers do differ from those of a sunflower in one odd way. While the sunflower produces male and female flowers in its disc (and thus fills in with seeds) while its ray flowers are sterile, the florets in the center of a cup plant bloom are all male and produce no seeds, but instead the ray flowers are all female. As a result, seeds form all around the flower head rather than in the center.

How to Grow a Gentle Giant

Look up to see the flowers. Photo:

The cup plant prefers full sun, although it will readily tolerate partial shade. It likes deep soil that is always a bit moist, which is why, in the wild, it’s often found growing in ditches and along rivers and streams. Despite this, thanks to its long taproot, a well-established plant (3 years old or greater) will be quite drought-tolerant … as long as the drought doesn’t last all summer!

It adapts to pretty much any soil: clay, sand or loam, rich or poor, acid, neutral or alkaline. It’s also a very long-lived plant, essentially permanent: you sometimes find specimens in old gardens that are over 50 years old!

Not much fertilization or indeed any special care seems necessary: it pretty much takes care of itself.

As for cold hardiness, I’ve seen it listed as hardy to USDA hardiness zones 3 to 8 (AgCan zones 4 to 8), but I see it growing happily a full zone colder. 

If you find it too large, pinch it back hard in June (see the article Time to Pinch Back Floppy Perennials) and that will reduce its height by about a third.

Finally, the cup plant doesn’t seem prone to disease or insect pests and, in general, deer tend to avoid it.

So, all you have to do is plant your cup plant, water it regularly the first and perhaps second season, and you’re left with a tough permanent perennial as big and robust as a shrub.

Making More Cup Plants

Mature specimens sometimes produce suckers at the base and they can be harvested and planted elsewhere. Normally, though, this plant is mainly propagated by seed.

Cup flower seeds. Photo: K.R. Robertson, Illinois Natural History Survey

Ideally, you’d give the seed a 2- to 3-month cold stratification. This replicates the conditions it receives in nature, where the seeds fall to the ground in the fall and overwinter in cold and moisture to germinate the following spring.

Sow the seeds either outdoors or in a cold frame in the fall and they’ll germinate with the return of warmer weather. Or start the seeds indoors in January, sowing them in moist soil, then place the container in the fridge for 2 to 3 months before exposing it to warmth and light. You can read more about cold stratification here: Some Like It Cold: Cold Treatment for Seeds

Seed-grown plants fill in quite nicely by the second year, but really reach full height and bloom in year 3.

Both Useful and Ornamental

The cup plant is not just attractive, but also useful. Photo:

Curiously, the other potential uses of the cup plant have received little interest in its native North America, but in Europe, it’s a rising star in farmers’ fields.

In Germany and France, especially, it’s increasingly used for the production of biofuel, producing biomass equal or even superior to that of corn. And as the cup plant is a long-lived perennial that grows back annually for decades, it beats corn—an annual that has to be reseeded yearly—hands down in the productivity department. Plus, unlike corn, it requires no fertilizer or insecticide treatments, crowds out weeds on its own and needs no cultivation, thus reducing erosion. As a result, its potential is seen as enormous.

It’s also being tested as a fodder plant for cattle and sheep and gives two generous harvests per year.

The leaves are edible and quite tasty. Photo:

Also, permaculture specialists are looking into the use of this plant as a possible vegetable. The young stems and leaves are perfectly edible, especially tasty when cooked. (Older ones become tough and unappealing.) But if you cut back the stems regularly, the plant keeps producing more. The question is therefore how many crops you can harvest without weakening the plant. And of course, continuous harvest will mean the plant won’t bloom and therefore won’t be of interest to birds and bees.

Native Americans once used this plant for medicinal purposes and that could be looked into. Among other possibilities, wounds to the plant produce an aromatic resin that can be used as a breath-freshening chewing gum.

Where to Find It?

This is not a common plant in garden centers and you’ll likely have to order it from a mail-order catalog. Look for native plant nurseries and those specializing in wildflowers, especially prairie plants. Sometimes, though, the easiest thing to do is to go out and harvest seeds from the wild or from abandoned gardens.

Other Gentle Giants

The huge leaves of prairie dock (Silphium terebinthinaceum)are quite tropical-looking. Photo:

Once you’ve tried growing the cup plant, you may want to give other Silphium species a try. I’ve found prairie dock (Silphium terebinthinaceum) quite spectacular with its huge tropical-looking leaves while the deeply cut leaves of the prairie compass plant (S. laciniatum) are just as stunning, although plant itself can be floppy if you don’t pinch it back. And there are over 20 other species you could try, most being giant plants with yellow (or, more rarely, white) daisy like blooms. 

So, if you have the space, give the cup plant a try: it makes a fascinating, useful and beautiful garden plant.

Plants With Weird Foliage: Perfoliation



Lonicera sempervirens is one of many plants with perfoliate leaves. Source: Stan Shebs, Wikimedia Commons

I’m writing a series of blogs about plants with weird foliage, blogs that will appear occasionally, according to the time I have to write them… and my whims. Two previous articles have already appeared: you can read them at 5 Plants With Weird Foliage and 4 Other Plants With Weird Foliage.

I’m dedicating today’s blog more to a type of foliage than to the plants themselves: perfoliate leaves.

The Conjoined Twins of the Plant World

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Most leaves are petiolate (they have a petiole or leaf stalk). Others lack a petiole and are called sessile. Source: Michael G. Simpson, Wikimedia Commons

Most angiosperm leaves – probably over 95%! – are attached to their stem by a short stalk called a petiole (or leaf stalk). They’re said to be petiolate. Most of the remainder are sessile – they attach directly to the stem, with no petiole – and others yet wrap partly or entirely around the stem and may be said to be clasping or sheath leaves. But the oddest situation of all is when the leaf forms right around the stem, to the point where the stem appears to grow right through the leaf. These leaves are said to perfoliate.

20180108C ENG Michael G. Simpson, WC.jpgThe word perfoliate comes from modern Latin perfoliatus, from Latin per- (through) and foliatus (leaved). It thus literally means “with leaves that are pierced.”


The cup plant (Silphium perfoliatum) has large perfoliate leaves. Source:

Most perfoliate leaves evolved when a pair of opposite leaves gradually fused together. This is the case with the giant perennial, Silphium perfoliatum, called the cup plant, because rainwater often accumulates in the depression where the two leaves join. With this plant, you can still clearly see that there were originally two leaves that joined together, but many perfoliate leaves have so clearly merged that they appear to be one single, often round leaf.

20180108E Bupleurum rotundifolium Stefan.lefnaer, WC.jpg

Bupleurum rotundifolium has single leaves that became perfoliate. Source: Stefan.lefnaer, Wikimedia Commons

Not all perfoliate leaves derive from opposite leaves fusing together. Sometimes a single leaf not only wraps around the stem (it’s said to be clasping or amplexicaul), but its base extends outwards until it takes on the appearance of a single leaf stabbed through the heart by a stem. Thoro wax (Bupleurum rotundifolium), an attractive if rarely grown annual, is in this group.

There and Back Again


Juvenile leaves of spinning gum (Eucalyptus perriniana) are perfoliate, but mature ones are petiolate.

Oddly, many plants go back and forth from perfoliate leaves to more classical petiolate or sessile leaves over their lifetime. Many eucalyptus trees, like spinning gum (Eucalyptus perriniana), have perfoliate juvenile leaves, yet willow-like, opposite, stalked adult leaves. If you prune a mature branch back, new juvenile perfoliate leaves will appear… for a while.

Likewise, many climbing honeysuckles, including Lonicera sempervirens (see the photo at top of this article), produce perfoliate leaves on their flowering stems, but opposite, stalked leaves elsewhere.

It Happens in the Best of Families

Perfoliate leaves evolved separately in different plant families (Apicaceae, Asteraceae, Caprifoliaceae, Colchiaceae, Crassulaceae, Fabaceae, Montiaceae, Myrtaceaeae, Plantaginaceae and many others). I won’t hazard a guess as to why they evolved and there are probably dozens of reasons why a perfoliate leave could be useful in some circumstances and not so much in others.

Perfoliation is still a fairly unusual trait, one botanists certainly notice, which is why you’ll find that many plants with perfoliate leaves have perfoliataperfoliatus or perfoliatum as their specific epithet. It’s often the most obvious distinguishing feature between two otherwise similar species.

Perfoliation in Your Garden


Miner’s lettuce (Claytonia perfoliata). Source:

Among the most widely available temperate-climate plants with perfoliate leaves are miner’s lettuce (Claytonia perfoliata, syn. Montia perfoliata), a quick-and-easy though little-known vegetable, the aforementioned cup plant (Silphium perfoliatum), becoming quite popular as a perennial for the back of the border, and several of the climbing honeysuckles. Common teasel (Dipascus fullonum), often a weed, but sometimes grown as an ornamental, likewise has perfoliate leaves.

In mild climates, several perfoliate eucalypti are widely grown.

20180108G Crassula perforata, www.sedumphotos.net_.jpg

String of buttons (Crassula perforata) is common enough in nurseries in one of its varied forms,

Indoors, or for mild arid climates, string of buttons or necklace vine, Crassula perforata, comes in various forms, from densely stacked and upright to loose and trailing and all have perfoliate leaves. You ought to be able to find at least one type in any garden center. C. rupestris marnieriana is similar, with smaller, fleshier leaves.

20180108H Crassula umbella,

Umbrella crassula (Crassula umbella). Source:

Much rarer and very much weirder is the umbrella crassula (Crassula umbella) with distinctly umbrella-shaped leaves, sometimes wine-red underneath (cultivar ‘Wine Cup’). Extremely odd! Trying growing this one from seed.

Grow crassulas as you would any houseplant succulent: intense light and moderate waterings.

The Button Plant Clan

20180108J Conophytum ernestii

Conophytum ernestii about to burst into bloom. Source:

I’m not sure that conophytums (Conophytum), also called button plants, really qualify as having perfoliate leaves, as there is certainly no leafy stalk that grows through what are really two leaves fused together… but there is a flower, which seems to sprout magically smack dab in the center of what appears to be single buttonlike leaf.

20180108P Conophytum calculus, Abu Shawka, WC.jpg

Some button plants, like this Conophytum calculus, have leaves that are almost perfectly round. Source: Abu Shawka, Wikipedia Common

As the author of this text, I figure I get to choose, and hereby declare conophytums perfoliate for the purpose of this article. And I think conophytums are simply the most fascinating of all the perfoliate plants.

20180108K Conophytum bilobum, MIke Peel,

This conophytum (Conophytum bilobum) isn’t quite so button like, but still has very curious leaves. Source: Mike Peel,

Conophytums are among the many plants called living stones, all natives of southern Africa from the ice plant family, the Aizoaceae. Other living stones are found in such genera as Lithops, Fenestraria, Frithia and Pleiospilos and that’s only a partial list! All are ground-hugging succulents that survive a hostile, arid environment by camouflaging themselves as stones. Not all of the some 100 conophytum species are buttonlike, though. In fact, many bear pairs of cone-shaped leaves, whence the genus name Cono (cone) phytum (leaf). Still, over a third of them are distinctly buttonlike.

Conophytums may be cute as a button, but growing them is not so easy. Read more about them here: Growing Button Plants.

Perfoliate leaves: weird enough to star in science fiction movies, yet common enough to be found in most environments if you look carefully. Keep your eyes peeled!