Plant Snowdrops for the First Flowers of Spring


Common snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis). Photo:

Go to any garden center in the fall and you’ll see an almost endless display of bags and boxes of spring-blooming bulbs: tulips, narcissi, hyacinths, etc. Tall bulbs and short bulbs, early bulbs and late bulbs, bulbs with single flowers and with double ones … and they come in all the colors of the rainbow. These popular plants will help ensure non-stop bloom from the end of winter to the beginning of summer. All you have to do is to plant them in the fall: dig, drop, done! 

But there are also, in the same displays, slightly less conspicuous bulbs, with somewhat more modest colors, that are not as well known to gardeners. But being a bit obscure doesn’t make them any less interesting. And one of these “neglected bulbs” is the snowdrop, perhaps the earliest bulb of all.

Tiny, But It Gets Around!

Map showing the natural ldistribution of Galanthus species in Eurasia. Ill.: Nalagtus, Wikimedia Commons

The name “snowdrop” refers to any plant in the genus Galanthus, a group of about 20 fairly similar bulbous plants, all from Europe or Asia. The most commonly cultivated species is the common snowdrop, Galanthus nivalis, native to Europe. It is, in fact, one of the most widely distributed plants of the whole continent, renowned for forming carpets of white in fields and forests in earliest spring, at snow melt.

Snowdrops are often seen with snow all around them. Photo:

The name Galanthus comes from the Greek from gala (milk), and anthis (flower), a reference to the milky white color of the flower. It produces a “true bulb,” like a little onion. It’s usually planted in the fall. Then the plant grows under the snow during the winter and thus is ready to bloom as soon as the ground thaws, hence its common name: snowdrop. Indeed, in many climates, it really is the first flower of the spring, often blooming with snow all around it!

In Europe, snowdrops are often considered winter bloomers, because they usually flower very early, in January or February. In climatically challenged Quebec, where I live, flowering usually takes place in April or even May, but sometimes begins at the end of March … right up against the foundation of my house where the snow melts early. It’s one of the longest-blooming spring bulbs, lasting 3 weeks and more. The colder the spring, the longer the blooms hold.

Possible Confusion

Snowflake (Leucojum vernum) on the left, snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) on the right. They’re really quite different! Photo: &

Don’t confuse snowdrops (genus Galanthus) with snowflakes (genus Leucojum). They’re close relatives, both in the Amaryllidoideae subfamily of the Amaryllidaceae family, but quite different when you look at them closely. Snowdrops bear three outward-extending white sepals, like a propellor, with a white and green crown tucked underneath, while the snowflake’s 6 tepals form a cup with a green dot at the end of each. In addition, snowflakes are larger plants and bloom later in the season than snowdrops.

A Description

Snowdrop flower: three white sepals, three green tipped petals forming a crown. Photo: André Karwath, Wikimedia Comnons

Using the common snowdrop as an example, expect a very simple plant: each bulb produces only 2 narrow grasslike leaves that appear with the flowers. The leaves continue to grow a bit after flowering, reaching 6 inches (15 cm) in length. The single flower is carried on an arching stem about 4 inches (10 cm) high and hangs on a thin pedicel. It is composed of an oval green ovary that ends in three pure white outward stretching sepals and a shorter inner crown (composed, in fact, of three petals set very close together) and often not very visible when the flower is seen from above. The crown is white with green markings at the tip.

Single bulbs slowly turn into dense clumps. Photo:

The bulb divides annually and therefore, after a few years, what was originally a single bulb becomes a clump that slowly gets bigger and bigger. Thus, the effect improves over time. Snowdrops are very long-lived: in fact, unless disturbed, they’re essentially eternal!

Snowdrops are rarely affected by predators: even squirrels, so fond of tulip bulbs, avoid them and so much the better for them, because snowdrop bulbs are toxic. 

Despite this toxicity, snowdrops have been used medicinally for centuries and are presently under study for possible use in treating Alzheimer’s disease. Do not try them at home, though! There’s a fine line between treating patients and poisoning them.

Don’t Delay Planting

Snowdrop bulbs should look like this. If they’re dry and crunchy, they’re dead. Return them for a refund. Photo:

Plant snowdrops as soon as they arrive in stores in September and certainly before mid-October. They tend to dry out and die if left sitting too long in a garden center display. 

Plant the bulbs about 3 to 4 inches (8 to 10 cm) deep and 3 to 4 inches (8 to 10 cm) apart. For an impressive effect rapidly, plant them in groups of at least 10 bulbs.

Snowdrops will thrive in any well-drained soil as long as they receive a fair amount of sun in the spring. They will grow readily under deciduous trees and in wooded areas, being totally indifferent to even dense summer shade, because its foliage will already be turning yellow and disappearing before the leaves above begin to unfold. They naturalize well in lawns, fields and forests in hardiness zones 3 to 8. Their need for winter cold precludes their use in very warm climates. 

In most climates, snowdrops self-sow abundantly. Photo: Lisa Stewart, @LGSpace

Snowdrops self-sow abundantly. Well, at least that’s what everyone tells me. But they don’t under my conditions. While squills (Scilla sibericaS. bifoliaS. mischtschenkoana and others), glories of the snow (different species of Chionodoxa), fumeworts (Corydalis solida) and puschkinias (Puschkinia scilloides) multiply like crazy in my flower beds and my lawn, snowdrops just remain where I planted them, forming thicker clumps. To obtain more, I have to multiply them by division, easy enough to do when the foliage turns yellow in late spring. Just dig them up, separate the bulbs and replant them. (No, you don’t have to store the bulbs dry until the fall before planting them: that will likely kill them.)

After the initial planting, essentially no care is needed for snowdrops. You don’t have to water or fertilize them nor even deadhead them. Even their leaves go from yellow to gone in no time. 

Tiny Bouquets

You can use snowdrops to make the first bouquets of spring! Photo: Lori Aab,

You can use snowdrops to produce the first bouquets of the year. True, the stems aren’t very long, but they are harvestable. And that way you’ll discover that the flowers are sweetly scented, a detail that usually escapes you when they’re at ground level, far from your nostrils.

More Choice Than You’d Think

The different species of snowdrops are very similar and if you’re an average gardener just looking for some easy early spring color, any variety you can find will do quite nicely. 

The double-flowered variety, Galanthus nivalis ‘Flore-Pleno’. Photo:

The common snowdrop (G. nivalis) is indeed the most commonly offered variety. And there is a double-flowered variety of the common snowdrop called G. nivalis ‘Flore-Pleno’ that you might find interesting (although, given the flower’s downward facing habit, its doubleness is not all that evident unless you plant it on a slope at eye level). 

Sometimes I see G. woronowii in stores. It’s about the size of the common snowdrop, but with wider leaves. 

The other commonly available species is G. elwesii, called the giant snowdrop. At only about 8 inches (20 cm) tall, it’s really not much of a giant, but it is twice the size of the common snowdrop. 

Galanthus ‘Wendy’s Gold’, with yellow markings instead of green. Photo:

Then there are the “collector’s items”: rarer, more expensive snowdrops that galanthophiles—serious snowdrop collectors, and they’re more numerous than you’d think!—really appreciate. These bulbs—varieties like ‘Dionysus’, ‘Hippolyta’, ‘Magnet’, ‘Mount Everest’ and ‘Wendy’s Gold’ —, are much harder to find. You’ll have to order them by mail.

Where the Bulbs Are

Your local garden center probably carries a snowdrop or two in its bulb inventory and, if not, your favorite bulb catalogue certainly does. A quick search on the Internet will bring up several places where you can order them.

As for galanthophiles, you probably already know who to go to for a quick snowdrop fix. If not, here are a few sources:

Canada: Phoenix Perennials

United States: Carolyn’s Shade Gardens.

Europe: North Green Snowdrops and Swiss Drops

The snowdrops: easy to grow, inexpensive and the results are practically guaranteed. What more could you ask for in a spring-flowering bulb?

The Joy of Snowmelt Bulbs



The very first spring crocuses sprouting in my otherwise snow-covered yard on April 16th!

A lot of people find it hard to believe that there snow is still snow where I live (Quebec City, Canada). And many of you think that snow until the middle of April would be reason enough to move. But you would be wrong. In fact, I get to see a sight few North Americans have ever seen: the flowering of snowmelt bulbs.

Snowmelt bulbs are normally found in the mountains of Europe. Their characteristic is that they start bloom when there still snow nearby. In fact, they sometimes bloom right through the snow. As I speak, the snow banks in my yard are melting back towards the shadier spots, and as they retreat, flowers spring up. Not a few weeks later, or a few days later, but the same day, literally an hour or so after the snow melts. It’s as if the flowers were pushing the snow back, forcing it to retreat.

How is that even possible? How can you go from ice to bloom in just minutes? The amazing fact is that these small bulbs actually grow under the snow. No, I’m not exaggerating. They actually start to sprout under the snow and ice at the end of the winter. So when the snow does melt, their growing point is exposed and they’re immediately ready to bloom.


Crocus tommasinianus

You can grow snowmelt bulbs just about anywhere that has cold winters, zones 2 or 3 to 8. And they’re usually the first flowers to bloom anywhere you plant them, blooming as early as January in milder climates. But in most climates, they don’t bloom at snowmelt, they bloom a few weeks later. They’ll only bloom at snowmelt in very special climates, like mine, where snow is deep and takes a long time to melt away. This is the case where they grow wild in the mountains of Europe and Asia, and also in the snowiest parts of North America. And it’s not the total amount of snow that counts, it’s how long it takes to melt. Typically here the snow doesn’t melt away until late March or early April, sometimes not until May. And snowmelt bulbs are entirely ready t o bloom by then.

The Best Snowmelt Bulbs

There are essentially four snowmelt bulbs: snowdrops, winter aconites, botanical crocuses and reticulated irises.

Snowdrops (Galanthus nivalis and others)


Galanthus nivalis

Snowdrops are the best known snowmelt bulbs… and their name even tells you they bloom while there is snow on the ground. Each bulb produces a single flower stem from 4 to 6 inches (10 to 15 cm) high, each bearing a single hanging white flower with a small green-marked crown in the center. Snowdrop flowers may last only a week if the weather suddenly turns hot, but I’ve seen them last a month when the spring was very cold. They clump up nicely over the years, looking better and better over the decades. Zone 2 to 8.

Winter Aconite (Eranthis hyemalis)


Eranthis hyemalis

This is the least well known snowmelt bulb, but also the most intriguing. You see, it actually melts the snow itself. Yes, the bulb gives off heat as it starts to grow, often creating an effect of a carpet of white dotted here and there with yellow blooms. It’s a very small plant and bears only a single stem coiffed with a collar of green foliage and one bright yellow flower. If the bloom reminds you of of a buttercup (Ranunculus acres), you’re right. The two are the buttercup family: the Ranunculaceae. Zone 4.

Botanical Crocuses (Crocus spp.)

There are actually quite a number of snowmelt crocuses, but only a few are commonly grown. Here are the most common ones, roughly in order of flowering, from earliest to last… although that may only a case of a couple of hours difference!

Golden Bunch Crocus (C. ancyrensis): produces a dense cluster of small, bright yellow flowers. You can tell it from the golden crocus (see below) by its pure yellow color. Zone 4 (3 under snow cover).


Crocus sieberi sublimis ‘Tricolor’ growing in my lawn.

Tricolor Crocus (C. sieberi sublimis ‘Tricolor’): each flower really does show 3 colors! The flower is bluish purple with a broad orange throat and, between the two colors, a distinct band of white. Zone 4.

Tommie Crocus (C. tommasinianus) larger flowers than the other snowmelt crocuses and the only one that spreads readily in the garden, self-sowing gleefully when it is happy… and I’m certainly not the person who’ll try to stop it. As far as I’m concerned, you can’t possibly have too many crocuses! The base flower color is lavender with a darker edge, but there are a several common cultivars in various shades of violet end purple. Zone 3.


Mixed Crocus chrysanthus in a lawn.

Golden Crocus (C. chrysanthus): the species has yellow flowers streaked with brown on the outside, but there are many cultivars of different shades of yellow, purple or white flowers, most showing purple or brown stripes on the outside. Zone 3.

All these snowmelt crocuses bloom about a week earlier than the much more popular Dutch crocus (C. vernus) which has larger flowers.


Iris ‘Katharine Hodgkin’

Reticulated Iris (Iris reticulata and its hybrids and relatives): The flowers are huge for such a short plant and and actually very typical of an iris: you really couldn’t mistake it for anything else. They come in various shades of purple, purple and white. Of this group, the most spectacular and earliest is I. ‘Katharine Hodgkin’ with flowers best described as turquoise: what a stunning plant and oh so easy to grow! Zone 4.

The “Après Snow” Bulbs

There are other bulbs that bloom just a little later then the snowmelt bulbs (puschkinias, Greek anemones, glories of the snow, bulbocodiums, some of the earliest narcissus, etc.) and I strongly recommend planting some of them as well. But they only bloom once all snow is gone and therefore are not, according to my definition at least, snowmelt bulbs,

Mark Your Agenda!

20150518HOn of the unfortunate facts of gardening life is that when plants are at their most beautiful is usually not the best time to plant them. And early spring flowering bulbs need to be planted a good 5 to 7 months from now, in the autumn. So while you may have spring blooms on your mind right now, you’re likely to have forgotten all about them by fall. That’s where an electronic agenda comes in handy.

Who doesn’t have an electronic agenda today? On your smart phone, your tablet, your computer, etc. So, before you even finish reading this paragraph, write down “plant snowmelt bulbs” on your agenda somewhere in mid-September. If not, you’ll almost certainly forget to plant them and so will miss the very first flowers of spring. If that isn’t tragic, I don’t know what is!

Of course, while you’re at it, you can plant a whole range of other spring-blooming bulbs at that same season: tulips, daffodils, hyacinths, etc. With a careful choice of snowmelt bulbs, early bulbs, mid-season bulbs and late bulbs, you’ll gain a good 2 months of bloom. Just make sure to include a few of the earliest bulbs to your plant list for those ultra-early blooms.

Growing Snowmelt Bulbs

Honestly, is there anything easier? Just plant the bulbs at a depth equal to three times the bulb’s height from mid- to late September. Try not to be later than that, as some of these very small bulbs, and especially winter aconites, tend to dry out and die if they’re aren’t planted fairly rapidly. You can plant them in a flower bed or a rock garden, remembering they need full to half sun… spring sun, that is! If the spot will be shaded later by overhanging foliage, that’s of no importance, as these bulbs will be dormant by then. Also, well-drained soil is a must. Unlike tulips, small spring bulbs really don’t need much in the way of fertilizer and will come back annually for decades. You can also naturalize them in a lawn (that’s what I do at my place). Simply lift the sod, place the bulbs in the hole and put the sod back in its place. And the last step when you water anything is to water well.

Once in the ground, snowmelt bulbs require no special care. Just let Mother Nature take care of them. You don’t have to deadhead and the foliage will fade away all on its own. If you have naturalized some in a lawn, just mow it as usual: by the time the lawn needs mowing, the snowmelt bulbs’ foliage will be long  gone and they will be fully dormant under the ground where the lawn mower can’t hurt them.

So, snowmelt bulbs: easy to grow, inexpensive (did I mention that?)… and you’ll have the first flowers on the block. Make next spring the best one ever!